Eczema Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Eczema?

Eczema is a general term used for common inflammatory dermatological conditions. The most constant features of eczema which are associated to significant amounts of histamine on the skin are pruritus and hyperirritability. Because of the alteration in the lipid content, sebaceous gland activity and sweating, too much dryness with consequential itching develops. This leads to crusting, flaking, cracking and bleeding of the skin. In reaction to skin rubbing, instant redness comes out on the skin. Scratching exposes a healing lesion which may increase the rash. Over time, burning cracks become visible.

The common classifications of eczema are atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, xerotic eczema and seborrheic dermatitis. Atopic eczema is an allergic disease with a hereditary element. Contact dermatitis is a cell-mediated skin sensitivity which results from a direct exosure with a chemical or allergen. A very common skin disorder among the older population is xerotic eczema where the skin becomes so dehydrated it turns into eczema. This type of eczema gets worse in dry winter conditions. Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin condition directly related to dandruff. There is dry and oily flaking in the scalp, face and eyebrows.

Eczema can be genetically inherited but still there is no exact cause but a defect of the skin weakens its role as a barrier. Some people have more than one gene defect leading to abnormalities in proteins which are known to be essential in maintaining skin integrity. Some forms of eczema can be triggered by environmental allergens direct contact with irritants, temperature, humidity, and psychological stress.

The course of action for the treatment of eczema includes decreasing irritation and scratching, lubricating the skin and preventing secondary infections. Individuals should stay away from allergenic substances such as harsh soaps and detergents. Scratching the affected area must be avoided since it will just worsen the condition ang may spread the irritation. Keep the fingernails short and clean. To prevent it from being scratched, it is effective to cover the area with clothing or sterile bandage. If exposed to allergenic substances, immediate washing of the exposed area with soap ang running water can remove the irritating chemical. To soothe the skin, intermittently apply wet compresses for short periods. OTC corticosteroid creams and oral antihistamines can help to relieve the intense itching. If secondary bacterial infection develops, antibiotics may well be needed.

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Folliculitis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Folliculitis?

It is a common dermatological condition characterized by the appearance of numerous small red or pink lesions with accompanying red halo indicating inflammation in one or more hair follicles. The pus-filled, red lesions cause the skin to appear like a chicken skin. Any part of the skin can be affected; ten to one hundred small bumps may come out in the chest, back, scalp, underarms, groin, extremities, face and buttocks. Mild to moderate folliculitis may often involve itchiness. In more severe cases where the infection is deeper and affects the entire follicle, the problem is pain. Scratching off the top exposes a small locked in hair within.

When hair follicles are damaged by tension from uncomfortable clothing, follicular blockage or shaving, folliculitis begins. In the majority of cases, the damaged follicles become infected with Staphylococcus aureus.

On the whole, it may be cosmetically disturbing but it medically undisruptive. The prognosis is very good as it is an easily curable condition. Most cases may resolve suddenly without undergoing any medical treatment.

To prevent folliculitis, use the following self-care guidelines. Shave in the same direction of hair growth using electric razor and avoid trimming the irritated areas. Avoid tight, constrictive clothing. Washing personal items such as linens and towels frequently is important.

An effective measure to promote drainage of the infected follicles is the application of hot, moist compresses. Depending on the result of the bacterial culture, the physician may endorse the use of antibacterial wash and antibiotic pills. Antibiotics can be applied directly to the skin or taken per orem to control infection To prevent further damage to the hair follicles and infection avoid shaving the area but if it becomes necessary, use a clean, new razor blade or an electric razor each time.

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Cellulitis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Cellulitis?

Cellulitis is the most familiar cause of limb swelling. The connective tissues are diffusely inflamed with serious inflammation of the dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin. It happens when an entry point through the first line of skin barriers has been injured permitting the normal microflora or exogenous bacteria commonly the Group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus to penetrate and release toxins in the tissues. This is non-contagious since the infection is limited to the deeper layers of the skin and the epidermis provides a cover over the infection.

The predisposing factors for cellulitis include bites, blistering, skin damage, severe acne, chicken pox, tinea pedis, tattooing, pruritic skin rash, recent surgical operation, dry skin, puncture wounds or in any ways that break the skin.

Old age, weakened immune system and diabetes are especially more at risk to contracting the disease than the general population. Because of the impairment of blood circulation in the legs leading to foot ulcers in diabetic patients, they are markedly prone to feet cellulitis. Poor management of blood glucose levels tolerates the bacteria to multiply at speed in the affected tissue and facilitates swift progression as infection goes through the lymph nodes and bloodstream.

This bacterial skin infection usually starts as a small area of inflammation that extends to neighboring skin areas. As the tender area begins to expand, the sick person develops hyperthermia, sometimes with chills and sweats, and swollen lymph nodes.

The affected individual is asked to elevate the involved area above the hear level. Every 2 to 4 hours, warm, moist packs are applied to the affected site. In mild cases of cellulitis, the treatment can be on an outpatient basis using oral antibiotic therapy. If severe, hospitalization is required and treated with an antibiotic intravenously with duration of 7 to 14 days.

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Basal Cell Carcinoma Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Basal Cell Carcinoma?

The most common type of skin cancer is the basal cell carcinoma. It is a type of non-melanocytic skin cancer that takes place from basal cells and accounts for approximately 75% of all skin cancer cases. Metastasis and mortality are rare, yet, it can bring considerable damage and disfigurement by invading proximate tissues of the eyes, ears or nose. Fair-skinned people with a family history of thus cancer are mainly affected.

Two thirds of the cases involves sunlight exposure as a significant factor, which confirms why tumors develop typically on sun-exposed areas such as the face, scalp, neck, torso, back, and legs. Exposure to sunlight leads to the formation of thymine dimmers which is DNA damage. Another risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet waves in tanning booths.

A basal cell carcinoma may appear at first as a little, shiny, semi-transparent dome-shaped tumor with rolled margins frequently covered by small, superficial blood vessels termed as telangiectases. Some basal cell carcinomas include melanin pigment causing a brown pigmentation. The open sore may bleed and heal again and again.

To make an accurate diagnosis, a shave biopsy is performed. A sample of the affected skin is taken out and is viewed under magnification to verify presence of cancer cells.

The modes of treatment adjust conditional on the size, level of penetration, and location of the basal cell tumor. Excision takes the cancer out. In curettage and electrodessication, the tumor is scraped away and electricity destroys any remaining cancerous cells. If the cancer has metastasized to organs or lymph nodes or in such cases when surgery cannot treat the cancer, radiation is desirable. If the basal cell carcinoma is under the superficial type, then topical creams with Imiquimod or 5-fluorouracil may be prescribed by the physician.

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Contact Dermatitis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis is a medical term for skin inflammation that results from exposure of the skin to an external chemical or physical substance, which can be an irritant or an allergen.

About 80% of the cases of contact dermatitis are caused by irritants. The inflammatory reaction is attributable to the direct effect of irritant substances like soaps, plants, solvent, latex, cosmetics, food, and detergents on the skin.

The remaining 20% of the cases are accounted to allergic contact dermatitis which is also the most prevalent type of immunotoxicity. In this case, the skin inflammation is caused by a hypersensitivity reaction acting via the interaction of the immune system’s immunoregulatory cytokines and T lymphocyte subpopulations to a specific substance. It begins with the chemical breaking through the skin. It binds to Langerhans’ cells and travel to lymph glands close by. Sensitization ends when the allergen has been introduced to T-lymphocytes which will produce memory cells to remember that specific allergen. A previous exposure to the substance is needed to provoke allergy. Succeeding exposure causes the T-lymphocytes to recognize the allergen and activates them, releasing inflammatory mediators to the site.

Formaldehyde, rubber, fragrances, nickel, topical medications, hair salon chemicals and some plants are the commonest allergens. In this case, there is a delay of the immune response between the first exposure and the consequent reaction.

Another difference between the two types of dermatitis is the extent of inflammation as manifested in the skin surface. Usually, allergic dermatitis is confined to an area where the trigger was actually in contact with the skin while in irritant, the skin inflammation is more widespread.

The common reaction is a red rash which appears immediately in irritant contact dermatitis while the rash brought by allergic contact dermatitis every so often emerges until 1 to 3 days following an allergen contact. Urticaria appears in a pattern where the skin was directly exposed to a trigger and worsens when the area is scratched.

To discard and inactivate most of the displeasing substance, clean the exposed skin with soap and cool water straight away after direct contact to an identified trigger. Lemon juice and vinegar which are weak acids can be applied to neutralize the effects of the chemical substances. Cold moist compresses are done for 30 minutes thrice a day if there is development of blisters. Aside from application of calamine lotion and cool colloidal baths, Diphenhydramine can be taken to relieve itching.

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Tinea Versicolor Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Tinea Versicolor?

Dermatomycosis furfuracea, also called as Tinea versicolor is a condition distinguished by a rash on the trunk and proximal extremities, majorly caused by Malassezia globosa. This yeast is naturally living on the human skin and only becomes disruptive under special circumstances, including high temperature, weakened immunity, and hormonal abnormalities. It is assumed that the yeast feeds on lipids on top of dead skin cells.

Generally, oval-shaped spots with sharp borders roughly about ¼ to 1 inch in diameter often come into the skin surface together to form a bigger patch. Frequently affected body areas are the back, upper arm, torso, lower legs, armpit, and could also be show on the face. There is an infrequent fine scaling of the skin which gives an external ash-like scale. During a strenuous activity or in warm days, the body temperature is elevated. Sometimes when there is an elevation of the body temperature, pin-prick itching is felt in the affected areas. The warmer the temperature, the worse it gets. The distressing itch stops once sweating begins.

Pigmentary alterations occur. The term versicolor presents the detail that it brings about color shifts to the involved skin by either becoming lighter or darker than the adjacent skin surfaces. Commonly, people who have dark complexion will have hypopigmentation, while those with lighter skin tone will have hyperpigmentation. These temporary discolorations are termed as sun fungus.

For the treatment of tinea versicolor, wash and dry the affected skin area. A thin layer of antifungal agents are applied to the skin two times a day for less than 2 weeks. Some doctors prescribe the most economical yet effective treatment which is selenium sulfide shampoo to be applied for 10-15 minutes before rinsing; done twice a week for about 2 to 4 weeks. In severe, massive and recurring cases, Nizoral pills will eliminate the fungus and relieve any itch.

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Herpes Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Herpes?

Herpes simplex is a sexually transmitted viral disease caused either by Herpes simplex virus type and type 2. The categorization into various distinct disorders is based on the site of viral infection.

The virus rotates between episodes of active disease where blisters holding the infectious virus particles appear persisting for about 2 to 21 days. The first period of this disease is typically worse than recurrences that appear in a while. The principal clinical manifestation of herpes is an attack of painful, irritating lesions on and around the reproductive organs or on or by the lips.

This is followed by a remission phase. Subsequent to the preliminary infection, the herpes viruses move all along the path to the ganglion where they become dormant and exist there for lifetime. Individuals can expect an outbreak if a tingling sensation is felt. During this time, they are acutely contagious even if the skin looks natural. Classically, the sores entirely heal but resurface at some time in the future when least anticipated. The reasons as to why the infection recurs are indefinite while a few possible triggers have been recognized together with the use of immunosuppressant medications, excessive sunlight exposure, hyperthermia, stress, acute illness, and weakened immune system.

The virus is easily transmitted by skin-to-skin contact with an active lesion or even with visibly normal skin but is shedding virus, kissing, or body secretions of an infected person. When the blisters have dried up and crusted over, the danger of infectivity is drastically lessened. To infect an individual, the virus penetrates through small breaks or even microscopic injury in the skin or mucous membrane sufficient enough to allow viral entry.

The most dependable technique to avoid the risk of herpes spread is by means of barrier protection. Limiting the number of sexual partners into one is another move toward prevention knowing that the chances of getting infected rises with the number of sexual partners an individual has.

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