Cold Sores Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Cold Sores?

Medically known as orolabial herpes, fever blisters or cold sores are tiny, painful, erythematous-based clusters of grouped vesicles that come out on the lips that are caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The herpes simplex virus can easily penetrate the body via cracks in the skin around the mouth. The virus can be transmitted through sharing of eating utensils, kissing and touching the affected individual’s saliva.

A premonitory symptom of a tingling and burning pain heralds the appearance of the fluid-filled blisters by up to a day. They are typically limited to the mouth area, but they can still occur on the nose, chin and cheeks. After the sores emerge, they typically burst open leading to a clear fluid leakage. After it becomes dry, it crust over and fades away after two weeks at most. Some individuals may carry the herpes virus but they don’t get the condition.

Prevention is the best way to keep away from getting the viral infection. Avoid sharing eating utensils, drinking cups or any other personal items to any person. Avoid being exposed to body fluids of an infected individual.

Orolabial herpes usually heal on their own just within several days. Be cautious not to use topical creams with steroids as they exacerbate manifestations. There are more than a few medications available that can reduce the period or symptoms of fever blisters. Treatment options include topical Acyclovir creams, ointments and other prescription-strength topical antiviral medications.

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Acne Scars Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

Acne Scars

The end results of inflammation within the dermis caused by acne are acne scars. It is more likely that acne cysts leave behind permanent scars than other types of acne since cystic acne causes nodules to form underneath the skin.

When a wound from acne attempts to heal itself, too much collagen gathers in the affected spot, creating a red or hyperpigmented mark on the skin. This is not yet a scar, somewhat a post-inflammatory transformation which is noticed as the skin undergoes healing ang remodeling processes that take roughly about 6 to 12 months. If the area will be free from acne lesions for a long time, the skin can be repaired naturally. If the skin defect or the pigmentation still exists after 12 months, the skin condition is called a permanent acne scar.

An acne scar can be in different forms. Scars can be identified as an ice pick scar, box car scar, rolling scar or a hypertrophic scar. Ice pick scars are deep pits causing an indentation on the surface and is the most common and classic sign of acne scarring. The skin’s surface appears to have been punctured with an ice pick. Usually, these kinds of scars are narrower than 2 mm, but can extend into the deep dermis and even the subcutaneous layer.

Box car scars are round indentations with angular edges that typically occur on the cheeks. Scars with wave-like appearance are rolling scars. This scar is a consequence of binding of normal-looking skin to the fatty tissue below. Splitting up the subcutaneous fibrous bands is a way to correct a rolling scar. Thick, keloid scars are the hypertrophic scars.

In order to prevent the occurrence of post-inflammatory changes is to prevent acne from developing. Understanding the contributing factors that provoke acne and using appropriate treatment routines are examples of initial measures of acne prevention.

Knowing the role of free radicals in skin damage, using antioxidants to help treat permanent scars would help. Sadly, no scientific research would establish antioxidants as cures for skin damage. In fact when Vitamin E, when used topically to healing wounds causes more harm.

There are various procedures that are available today for acne scar correction. Some of these treatments are dermal fillers, punch excision with or without skin graft replacement, punch elevation, subcutaneous excision and laser resurfacing. Bear in mind that each procedure has its own pros and cons, and others are usually rendered in combination for best results.

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Seborrheic Dermatitis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis, otherwise known as seborrheic eczema is a common inflammatory skin disorder characterized by scaly, flaky, itchy red skin and persistent dandruff patterned especially on sebum-gland rich areas.

Seborrheic dermatitis is thought to be due to the contribution of yeast Malassezia, to the abnormal immune response. The yeast hydrolyzes sebum and releases toxic substances that cause skin irritation and inflammation.

Other causes include environmental changes, stress, genetics, Vitamin A, pyridoxine and riboflavin deficiencies, medications, hormonal imbalance, and abnormal immune response.

The clinical manifestations come out steadily, with dandruff as the usual first sign. It may occur on the scalp, face and on areas where skin folds, with areas becoming red, itchy and flaky.

Seborrheic dermatitis in infants is termed as cradle cap. It is not dangerous and is just a temporary condition. It comes out as thick, crusty, yellow scales over the infant’s scalp. When it happens in infants, the disorder will resolve itself within days and without any treatment.

Once you get this skin condition, it is likely to become persistent and there are no measures to stop it permanently. But there are a number of treatment options to control the symptoms. Applying medicated creams and lotions to the affected body areas is the mainstay measure. Topical corticosteroid is only for short-term use because of rebound effect which may promote dependence. Frequent shampooing ang longer periods of lathering can reduce dandruff.

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Keratosis Pilaris Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Keratosis Pilaris?

Keratosis pilaris is an autosomal dominant, genetic disorder of keratinization of hair follicles. Also termed as follicular karatosis, this is an extremely common benign condition that is manifested by the appearance of small, uneven folliculocentric keratotic bumps on the skin, often portrayed as chicken skin. Upon gross examination, it appears primarily on the back and the outer portions of the upper arms, facial cheeks, thighs and buttocks.

Globally, it affects more or less 40% of the adult population, and an estimated 50% to 80% of the adolescents.

This condition transpires once the human body produces too much natural protein called keratin. The undue protein which is cream colored, contains and entraps the hair follicles in the pore leading to the formation of hard plugs. The hard plugs inhibit the hair from exiting and reaching the surface, so it grows continuously being encapsulated inside the follicle and beneath the keratin debris. Rubbing the affected area will expose the coiled hair in a few instances. This condition endures only cosmetic consequences as it comes out as a proliferation of tiny hard lumps that are completely harmless. The disorder manifests as a diffused, irregular rash made of ten to 100, very small red bumps. When touched, the affected area seems to be like that of sandpaper in texture.

No cure or universally effective management is on hand. However there are a number of palliative treatment selections and skin care measures which need to be continuous. The effectiveness of the treatment recipe is absolutely associated to the person’s consistency. Bear in mind that these treatment options can only afford to give good temporary results. Some of these measures to avoid unwarranted skin dryness include the use of mild soap-less cleansers once or twice a day and regular skin lubrication. Other treatment methods for Keratosis Pilaris consist of topical exfoliants, topical corticosteroids and topical retinoids.

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Baby Acne Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Baby Acne?

Infants may be born with or will develop rashes and red bumps on their face. This is a very common infant condition called baby acne. This is an impermanent normal skin condition that maybe present already even from birth, although it usually comes out when the newborn is 3 to 4 weeks old until 6 months of age. It is more common in male infants.

Commonly, baby acne is attributable to the hormonal changes that occurred during pregnancy and not an indication of a hormonal problem. The maternal hormones cross the placenta and stimulate the newborn’s oil glands, in the end, giving rise to this condition.

Predominantly the pustules appear on the cheeks, chin and forehead. Baby acne is at its height when there is skin irritation, or during times when the infant is hot or fussy. When the skin becomes damp from spit-ups, saliva, milk and harsh detergents, the condition may become visibly worse for quite a few days.

Unless the condition is caused by a causal disease, in general no treatment is needed. It is better to leave it as it is. It will fade away in a few short weeks. Attempting to render topical preparations and brisk washing could only irritate their sensitive skin. Acne medications are very rarely given that these drugs are hard on the infant’s delicate skin. Baby oils and lotions won’t help and using these may only worsen the condition. Then again, using a gentle cleanser to cleanse the face once a day might help.

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Lipoma Pictures

Jun 23 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Lipoma?

A lipoma is a benign tumor of the fat cells in a slim, fibrous capsule positioned just beneath the skin. It is acknowledged as the most common type of noncancerous soft tissue tumor. Lipomas can arise at any age, but these growths are most common in adult individuals aged 40 to 60 years old and very rare to occur in children.

The primary etiology is not yet established. A genetic involvement is possible which involves a gene rearrangement of chromosome 12. Assumption exists concerning a feasible association between blunt blow trauma and subsequent growth of lipoma.

Most of the lipomas are small, usually about 1 cm to 3 cm in diameter but can increase to sizes over and above 6 cm. But in most of the cases, the growth remains the same size over years or grows gradually. They are usually painless and have a soft, rubbery texture. A lipoma is easy to recognize as it moves promptly with minor finger pressure. They could emerge almost anywhere but these dome-shaped growths are most frequent to appear on the trunk, neck, shoulder, armpits, upper thigh and arms.

Generally, lipomas need not to be removed. Treatment is not necessary as lipomas are not cancerous. If in case the growth becomes painful and sore, cyclically gets to be infected or inflamed, empties an offensive-smelling discharge, expands in dimension or becomes cosmetically unappealing, a surgical removal is considered necessary. Treatment selections aside from surgical removal include the use of steroid injections to shrink the tumor and liposuction to remove fatty lumps.

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Acne Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Acne?

Acne is a skin condition characterized by minor, although infrequently serious, skin eruptions due to inflammation around the sebaceous glands. It is most prominent on the face, chest, arms and back. Roughly about 85% of all people have acne outbreaks in some point in their lives.

Normally, the sebaceous glands produce a fatty, oily substance known as sebum, to protect and lubricate the skin. Acne results when the sebum flow is obstructed by dead skin cells, dried sebum or by bacteria. When there is a complete blockage, whitehead is produced. When the blockage is incomplete, blackhead results. In time, the clogged hair follicle enlarges, producing a bump. The follicles continue to enlarge until the walls rupture, permitting the normal skin bacteria to enter into the deeper layer of the skin. This will result to an inflammation. If the inflammation is close to the surface, this is termed as pustule, pimple for deeper inflammation and much deeper is called cyst.

Remove excess oil by regular gentle washing of the face with non-irritating unscented soaps. However, avoid vigorous washing and scrubbing as these may irritate the skin, making the acne worse. The use of over-the-counter preparations and topical solutions with benzoyl peroxide improves acne. If the acne is severe, dermatologists may prescribe topical and oral antibiotics. If the patient has drug-resistance to antibiotics, Accutane may be used as a substitute. If acne is fully managed, scars can be dealt with resurfacing derma procedure called dermabrasion. Except in severe cases where the skin eruption is widespread, normally acne is undisruptive and responds well to treatment.

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Dermatitis Herpetiformis?

Dermatitis Herpetiformis, otherwise known as Duhring’s disease, is a chronic autoimmune blistering dermatological condition characterized by clustered excoriations, urticaria and vesicles located on the elbows, knees, back and buttocks. As the name suggests, the inflammation is similar to herpes, but it is not related to herpes virus. It was Dr. Louis Duhring who originally described the disease in the year 1884 at the University of Pennsylvania.

The papulovesicular eruptions are intensely itchy and chronic distributed symmetrically on extensor surfaces. This condition also involves the appearance of a rash. The rash results when gluten joins with IgA, both enter the bloodstream and circulates in the system and finally, gluten and IgA clog up the small blood vessels in the skin. This will draw neutrophils and release chemicals which really produce the rash. At first, the person will notice a slight pigmentation at the site where the lesions come out. Then later it will become vesicles that occur in groups.

Dermatitis herpetiformis responds well to Dapsone. For most patients, this drug is an effective treatment that will improve the disease in just a few days. It responds so quickly that itching is significantly reduced in two to three days. However, when the damage has reached the gastrointestinal tract, this pharmacological treatment has no effect.

To help control the disease, a strict gluten-free diet should be observed as lifetime management. This modification can radically decrease related intestinal damage and other complications.

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma is a common, yet histologically-distinct skin cancer that starts when there is an uninhibited multiplication of malignant squamous cells, which normally are fine, flat cells that look like scales under magnification. These cells are located in the tissue that forms the skin surface, the respiratory and digestive tracts and lining of hollow organs. The incidence increases with age with an average peak incidence at 66 years old.

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and from tanning beds is the primary reason for the majority of the cases of this cancer. Other factors that can play a role to the development of squamous cell carcinoma are old age, family history, weak immunity, xeroderma pigmentosum, smoking and skin injury.

In this type of cancer, there is a relatively slow-growing bump that possesses a rough and scaly red patches located commonly on the face, neck, arms and hands and other sun-exposed areas. The lesion may appear as a hard plaque with small blood vessels. In addition, there is an irregular bleeding from the tumor, particularly on the lips.

The treatment is dependent on the tumor’s size and anatomical location, the number and the surgeon’s preference. Usually, the treatment is curative. In fact, if this is correctly treated, the cure percentage is about 95%. Squamous cell carcinomas are usually removed surgically via simple excision. Freezing with liquid nitrogen is a successful option for very small squamous cell carcinomas. If the carcinoma is larger than 2 centimeters, the most effective treatment is the Mohs surgery. If the patient has larger tumors, or is situated in a more challenging location, diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography, or MRI to determine the degree of involvement and metastasis. If it is metastatic, radiotherapy might be the choice of treatment.

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Rosacea Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Rosacea?

Rosacea is a very common erythematous, acne-like chronic dermatological condition that affects an estimated 45 million people worldwide.

Still, there is no particular cause that can sufficiently explain the pathogenesis of this disorder. It could be a pattern of genetic predisposition and environmental factors that has caused for it to arise. There is also a link connecting the condition to mites, sun exposure, medications that may cause blood vessel dilation, gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori.

The major clinical symptoms of rosacea consist of red patches, development of telangiectases, which are small blood vessels that form just under the skin surface, diffuse facial redness, red cysts, and pink or irritated eyes. These manifestations tend appear, then disappear for weeks, months or even years and then reappear.

It frequently begins with a tendency to go red much more easily than other people do. In time, individuals may see irreversible redness on the face.

Characteristically, the nose can become red and bumpy and develop visible dilated superficial blood vessels. If left untreated, later stages can bring a disfiguring nasal condition called rhinophyma, a condition described by a bulbous, enlarged red nose and puffy cheeks.

Currently, rosacea isn’t regarded as a curable disorder, but it can usually be managed with appropriate, standard treatments. With lasers, intense pulse light, photodynamic therapy and isotretinoin made available, some cases of this condition may be drastically cleared for a long time.

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Scabies Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Scabies?

Conversationally established as the seven-year itch, Scabies is a highly communicable skin infection described by the eruptive lesions created from the skin excavations of the female itch mites called Sarcoptes scabiei. These eight-legged parasites are microscopic measuring around 0.33 to 0.45 mm but at times they are detectable as white pinpoints so a magnifying glass is of use. The parasite burrows underneath the epidermis to lay eggs and initiates an intense allergic irritation.

Scabies Causes

Any person can develop infection or re-infection since it is easily spread most often by prolonged, direct physical contact with infected individuals. The disease may also be transmitted from inanimate objects or by sexual contact. The time-span needed for the female itch mite to burrow on infected skin and lay eggs is within a day from the initial contact with the infected individual.

Scabies Symptoms

The clinical manifestations involve intense and unrelenting itchiness which becomes worse at night and after a hot shower. There are also superficial burrows which are often linear or s-shaped and come out as tiny, wavy, flushed, grayish or dark outlines on the skin surface, especially on the folds under the arms, around the wrists and between the fingers, and other moist areas. When larger areas of the body are involved and secondary infection is serious, hyperthermia, headache and body weakness will occur.

Scabies Treatment

This infection is more frequently observed in congested vicinities with insanitary living situations. It is a sign of poor hygiene. Care must be observed regarding effective preventive measures including good personal hygiene, regular changing of clean clothing, beddings and towels, exposing the linens used under the sun, washing used linens in hot water, general house cleaning and improving the sanitation of the environment. Stuffed toys can be wrapped up in a plastic bag for three days because the parasites cannot live on for too long being away from host’s skin. All rooms in the residence have got to be vacuumed and the bag should then be destroyed.

The medical management includes assessing the whole family of the infected individual before assuming any treatment, for as long as one member stays infected, others will potentially get the disease. Dermatologists treat this infection by recommending a medicated lotion to destroy the itch mites. People are instructed to apply permethrin cream from the neck down and let it remain on the skin during the night before it is washed off. This cream application is regularly repeated in a week. Benzyl benzoate emulsion and Kwell ointment are effective but should be limitedly applied entirely to the skin.

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Boils Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is a boil?

Also termed as a furuncle, a boil is a deep-seated infection of the hair follicle which is generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It is a confined dermatological infection that commonly begins as a painful, reddened, inflamed area. After a while, the mottled area becomes firm, rigid, and tender. The white or yellow point at the midpoint of the boil softens and becomes filled with pus. In groups, they are called as carbuncles. Individual may as well develop hyperthermia, swollen lymph nodes, and body weakness.

There are several causes of boil formation. It can be brought by an ingrown hair. The bacterial colonization starts in the hair follicles and produces a localized inflammation. In the case of acne, the reason is the plugged sweat glands becoming infected. The skin forms as a line of defense against materials and pathogens foreign to the body. Any break in the integrity of the skin can become an pustule should it get infected with bacteria. People who have diabetes, nutritional deficiencies, poor sanitation, chemical exposure and those who are immunosuppressed are greatly susceptible to skin infections.

Proper hygiene practices and the frequent use of antibacterial soaps help stop bacteria from accumulating on the skin surface. These measures trim down the odds for the hair follicles to get contaminated.

Opposite to the conventional idea, boils need not to be drained in order to heal; as a matter of fact, opening the infected area can initiate further infections. Never squeeze or lance the boil with needle without the supervision of a doctor because it may just worsen the condition. Heat application is the principal treatment for most boils. Heat application typically with hot soaks enhances blood circulation to the involved area and permits the body to better combat the infection by carrying antibodies and WBCs to the site of infection. Antibiotics are not needed in all situations. They may be recommended by the doctor if there is severe infection after determining the type of bacteria through culture and sensitivity.

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Sebaceous Cyst Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Sebaceous cyst?

Every so often labeled as an epidermal cyst, a sebaceous cyst is a sac below the skin which is filled with a fatty, cheesy-like, greasy substance.

Different factors predispose the person to develop sebaceous cyst. It could be a hereditary factor, high levels of testosterone, skin trauma or plugged sebaceous glands. Most often, it crops up from swollen hair follicles.

The major clinical manifestation is typically a minor, slow-growing, non-painful, freely movable nodule underneath the skin. Sebaceous cysts are most common to appear on the face, neck, chest and back. Yet, when infected, inflammation of the skin over the area occurs. The cyst may drain a cheesy, grayish-white and offensive smelling matter. These mobile bumps contain fibrous tissues, viscous, serosanguinous fluid, and a keratinous substance which gives off the characteristic foot odor smell.

It is best to ignore them because most often, sebaceous cysts disappear over time and are not dangerous. However these cysts may become inflamed and painful when attempted to squeeze. They may grow large enough and when this occurs, surgery may be compulsory for it to be excised. If they remain small, they can be treated with a steroid injection to reduce swelling. Another familiar and effective approach to help the cyst drain and heal is the placement of a warm compress directly over the area for about 15 minutes, two times a day for a duration of 10 days.

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Psoriasis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a common T-cell-mediated autoimmune, persistent skin disorder, characterized by circumscribed patches of raised, thickened, red bumps covered with silvery-white, flaking scales. Naturally in the deepest layer of skin, there are new skin cells continuously being formed. From there, they ascend to the epidermal layer where dead surface cells are shed in a 28-day-process. In areas affected by psoriasis, however, the problem is new cells only need three to four days to reach the epidermal surface, leading to an increased epidermal cell turnover with marked thickening which causes the typical scaly plaques.

In almost all cases, the primary cause is unspecified. It is believed that activated T lymphocytes produce chemical messengers that stimulate abnormal growth of keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels. Other factors may be associated with heredity. Flare-ups may be elicited by infection, skin trauma and injury, stress, certain medications, corticosteroid withdrawal, alcohol and cold temperature and various environmental factors.

There is no known way to prevent psoriasis, and there is no cure either. The primary goal of treatment is to suppress the signs and symptoms of the disease. The treatment regimen depends on the severity of the condition as well as the patient’s age, history, compliance to therapy, and sex.

Exposure to sunlight improves many individuals with the condition. Maintaining the skin soft and well moisturized is effective. Application of heavy moisturizing creams can prevent skin dehydration especially when applied straight away after bathing. Never use irritating cosmetics and soaps. Do no scratching or skin rubbing or any aggressive action which can cause bleeding and irritation. Bath soaks with coal tar can eliminate and trim down the plaques. A physician-directed light therapy may be necessary.

The three fundamental modes of treatments for psoriasis are topical therapy, phototherapy and systemic therapy; all these therapies may well be used unaccompanied or in combination. Under topical therapy, the major remedies are corticosteroids, vitamin D-3 derivatives, coal tar and retinoids. In cases where psoriasis is extensive, as characterized by more itchy patches than can simply be counted, then UV-B light and PUVA are used. The third treatment mode is systemic therapy which includes drugs that are usually established after both topical treatment and light therapy have become unsuccessful.

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Impetigo Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Impetigo?

Impetigo is a common, superficial, extremely infectious bacterial infection of the skin generally caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, staphylococcus aureus or by multiple bacteria.

The mode of transmission is via direct contact with lesions and with nasal carriers. Dried streptococci suspended in the air are not transmittable to the intact skin. The period of incubation is 1 to 3 days. It is very contagious and infection may spread from one body area to other exposed areas of the body and may infect other people sharing with them their clothing, linen, towels, combs and other personal belongings soiled with exudates.

At first, the lesions appear as small, red pustules which quickly become isolated, thin-walled vesicles which will soon rupture leaving a denuded area that discharges a honey-like serous liquid. After it hardens on the skin surface, they become covered with stuck-on golden yellow crusts. Removing the crust will expose the smooth, red, moist surface on which new crust will form again.

There are two categories of impetigo namely bullous impetigo and non-bullous impetigo. Bullous impetigo involves larger fluid-containing vesicles that is clear at first and then becomes hazy. The most widespread type of impetigo is the non-bullous. In reverse to bullous impetigo, the blisters in non-bullous are tiny. These blisters will burst open in the end leaving a raw patch of red skin that suppurates fluid. Steadily, a honey-yellow coating coats the area.

Frequent hand washing and other good hygiene measures can facilitate prevention. Take baths regularly and clean the skin with mild soap and water. Prevent spreading the infection among members of the family by using a separate towel. Separate the infected individual’s personal belongings and wash the items in hot water. Other members who are not infected should pay special care to areas of the skin with impaired integrity and keep it clean and protected from getting infected. Persons who have impetigo are advised to stay indoors for a few days.

If the affected area is extensive and there is a concern about complications, then systemic antibiotic therapy is the usual treatment. Oral penicillin may be prescribed to patients with nonbullous impetigo. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins are recommended to patients who have bullous impetigo. If the patient has previous allergic reaction to penicillin, erythromycin is a useful substitute. If the disease is just limited to a small area, a topical antibiotic may be prescribed. An alternative to topical antibiotics is hydrogen peroxide.

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Shingles Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Shingles?

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles is a highly contagious disease attributable to the reactivation of the dormant human herpes virus type 3 virus situated in the dorsal nerve root ganglion of the spinal nerves. The virus can migrate along the path of a nerve to the skin surface causing a rash of painful blisters. This disorder affects only those who once have had chicken pox and commonly hits over age 50. In a client with a history of chickenpox, shingles can occur at some immunocompromised situations. Prognosis is good except when the virus extends to central nervous system.

It is still undefined how and why reactivation happens. It is assumed that the virus reactivates when, as a result of old age, illness, cancer, stress or immunosuppressant medications, the immune system turns out to be too vulnerable to keep the virus in a state of dormancy. After viral reactivation, the chicken pox virus travels down the sensory nerve into the skin to cause shingles.

In early stages, there is a tingling, itching, lightning bolt sensation followed by pain on one side of the body. One to three days after the pain starts, a rash with raised, red lumps and blisters erupts on the skin surface following a dermatomal outline or a ray-like distribution as blisters follow the pathway of individual nerves. They start to become pustules, and then scabs form by 10 days.

Separate the infected person from others because exudates from the lesions hold the virus. Maintain standard precautions. Use an air mattress on the bed and keep the atmosphere cool. Never scratch the skin where the rash is located to avoid the risk of secondary infections and scarring. To soothe the blisters, render cool water compress to suppurating blisters for 20 minutes many times a day. In the early stage of the disease, antiviral drugs may be combined with a strong corticosteroid to speed up healing and diminish the extent of pain. In the most critical situations, blocking agents are given via injection to stop pain signals from reaching the brain.

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