Archive for June, 2011

Cold Sores Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Cold Sores?

Medically known as orolabial herpes, fever blisters or cold sores are tiny, painful, erythematous-based clusters of grouped vesicles that come out on the lips that are caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The herpes simplex virus can easily penetrate the body via cracks in the skin around the mouth. The virus can be transmitted through sharing of eating utensils, kissing and touching the affected individual’s saliva.

A premonitory symptom of a tingling and burning pain heralds the appearance of the fluid-filled blisters by up to a day. They are typically limited to the mouth area, but they can still occur on the nose, chin and cheeks. After the sores emerge, they typically burst open leading to a clear fluid leakage. After it becomes dry, it crust over and fades away after two weeks at most. Some individuals may carry the herpes virus but they don’t get the condition.

Prevention is the best way to keep away from getting the viral infection. Avoid sharing eating utensils, drinking cups or any other personal items to any person. Avoid being exposed to body fluids of an infected individual.

Orolabial herpes usually heal on their own just within several days. Be cautious not to use topical creams with steroids as they exacerbate manifestations. There are more than a few medications available that can reduce the period or symptoms of fever blisters. Treatment options include topical Acyclovir creams, ointments and other prescription-strength topical antiviral medications.

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Acne Scars Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

Acne Scars

The end results of inflammation within the dermis caused by acne are acne scars. It is more likely that acne cysts leave behind permanent scars than other types of acne since cystic acne causes nodules to form underneath the skin.

When a wound from acne attempts to heal itself, too much collagen gathers in the affected spot, creating a red or hyperpigmented mark on the skin. This is not yet a scar, somewhat a post-inflammatory transformation which is noticed as the skin undergoes healing ang remodeling processes that take roughly about 6 to 12 months. If the area will be free from acne lesions for a long time, the skin can be repaired naturally. If the skin defect or the pigmentation still exists after 12 months, the skin condition is called a permanent acne scar.

An acne scar can be in different forms. Scars can be identified as an ice pick scar, box car scar, rolling scar or a hypertrophic scar. Ice pick scars are deep pits causing an indentation on the surface and is the most common and classic sign of acne scarring. The skin’s surface appears to have been punctured with an ice pick. Usually, these kinds of scars are narrower than 2 mm, but can extend into the deep dermis and even the subcutaneous layer.

Box car scars are round indentations with angular edges that typically occur on the cheeks. Scars with wave-like appearance are rolling scars. This scar is a consequence of binding of normal-looking skin to the fatty tissue below. Splitting up the subcutaneous fibrous bands is a way to correct a rolling scar. Thick, keloid scars are the hypertrophic scars.

In order to prevent the occurrence of post-inflammatory changes is to prevent acne from developing. Understanding the contributing factors that provoke acne and using appropriate treatment routines are examples of initial measures of acne prevention.

Knowing the role of free radicals in skin damage, using antioxidants to help treat permanent scars would help. Sadly, no scientific research would establish antioxidants as cures for skin damage. In fact when Vitamin E, when used topically to healing wounds causes more harm.

There are various procedures that are available today for acne scar correction. Some of these treatments are dermal fillers, punch excision with or without skin graft replacement, punch elevation, subcutaneous excision and laser resurfacing. Bear in mind that each procedure has its own pros and cons, and others are usually rendered in combination for best results.

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Seborrheic Dermatitis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis, otherwise known as seborrheic eczema is a common inflammatory skin disorder characterized by scaly, flaky, itchy red skin and persistent dandruff patterned especially on sebum-gland rich areas.

Seborrheic dermatitis is thought to be due to the contribution of yeast Malassezia, to the abnormal immune response. The yeast hydrolyzes sebum and releases toxic substances that cause skin irritation and inflammation.

Other causes include environmental changes, stress, genetics, Vitamin A, pyridoxine and riboflavin deficiencies, medications, hormonal imbalance, and abnormal immune response.

The clinical manifestations come out steadily, with dandruff as the usual first sign. It may occur on the scalp, face and on areas where skin folds, with areas becoming red, itchy and flaky.

Seborrheic dermatitis in infants is termed as cradle cap. It is not dangerous and is just a temporary condition. It comes out as thick, crusty, yellow scales over the infant’s scalp. When it happens in infants, the disorder will resolve itself within days and without any treatment.

Once you get this skin condition, it is likely to become persistent and there are no measures to stop it permanently. But there are a number of treatment options to control the symptoms. Applying medicated creams and lotions to the affected body areas is the mainstay measure. Topical corticosteroid is only for short-term use because of rebound effect which may promote dependence. Frequent shampooing ang longer periods of lathering can reduce dandruff.

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Athlete’s Foot Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Athlete’s Foot?

Athlete’s foot, medically known as tinea pedis, is a very common superficial skin infection caused by fungi in the genus Trichophyton. The fungal infection causes scaly, flaky, round, itchy patches that affect the feet. Most individuals get this fungal infection from walking barefoot on areas where other person infected with the fungus has also walked. This condition involves blistering skin cracking and fissuring leading to exposed raw tissue, painful inflammation. With the integrity of skin reduced, secondary bacterial infection should be anticipated.

Contact with pets that carry the fungi on their bodies is also one mode of transmission. The fungi can also be acquired from public shower floors, floors in gyms, swimming pools, nail salons, wet towels, and footwear and can be transmitted from person to person from shared objects. For that reason, good hygiene plays an essential role in managing the infection. Knowing that fungi flourish and found to be growing in moist, humid environments, measures like keeping the feet clean and dry as possible and avoiding sharing of personal belongings assist in the prevention of the primary infection.

The projection is good since it normally responds well to simple treatment. Athlete’s foot can often be cured with OTC antifungal creams and powders especially those containing ketoconazole. Usually, these creams are applied on the affected area once or twice a day. After the infection has cleared, continued use for 2 weeks is recommended to prevent recurrence of the infection.

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Candidiasis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Candidiasis?

Candidiasis, also known as moniliasis, is a fungal inflammatory reaction caused by Candida fungi. Infection occurs when the fungus penetrates the tissue, colonize, and release toxins that trigger an acute inflammatory response. The most commonly affected areas are mouth, esophagus, skin, and other moist areas of the skin.

Under normal conditions, the yeast known as Candida is a normal part of microflora existing on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, mouth and in the female’s reproductive organ. Any change in the body or in the environment that would permit the yeast to suddenly proliferate can lead to candidiasis. The most common situation is the continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Harmless bacteria, in addition to a small amount of the fungus Candida albicans, are living to compete with the fungus, thus keeping them under control. With the use of antibiotics, the number of bacteria is diminished while the fungus multiplies without restriction and begins to cause symptoms. Other underlying factors that are present in a susceptible individual are escalating blood glucose level, and weakened immune system, radiation and corticosteroid therapy.

The clinical manifestations seen in the female reproductive organ include itching on the private organs, thick, white, odorless discharge, and difficulty during urination and sexual intercourse.

If the mouth is involved, the infection can cause a creamy or bluish-white discharge on the tongue and mouth, which causes sore throat.

Itch red rash with flaky patches are observable on the skin surface. In serious cases, the infection can produce chills, hyperthermia and severe body malaise.

The first goal of treatment is to improve any underlying disorder that has activated the onset of candidiasis. The other collaborative actions are pharmacologic. Antifungal agents in the form of creams, ointment, oral gels, and oral solutions are prescribed for superficial candidiasis. Clotrimazole is prescribed for mucous membrane infections and amphotericin B for systemic infection.

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Bed Sores Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Bed sores?

Bed sores, also identified as pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers, are confined area of tissue death that are likely to progress when soft tissue is compressed between a bony prominence and an outside surface for an extended period of time. This kind of skin ulceration is mostly observed in patients who are bedridden and those who are improperly positioned in bed.

Because of the compression, blood flow to that area is radically reduced which causes blanching. The common compensatory response of the body when there is absent or reduced blood flow is vasodilation, so if the pressure is removed, the skin area takes on a brighter color or what we call reactive hyperemia. If the area blanches with fingertip pressure or if redness on the area fades away within 1 hour, tissue damage is negative. But if after one hour and there is still redness, then tissue damage exists. Other warning signs are discolored and swollen skin especially above the bony prominences and signs of infection.

In combination with pressure, there are few other forces which contribute to the formation of decubitus ulcers, such as shearing and friction. Shearing, which accounts for a high frequency of sacral bed sores, is the force applied against the skin surface when a patient is moved or repositioned in bed, by log rolling, pulling, pushing in bed. This action results in the straightening and tearing of small blood vessels, leading to a reduction of blood flow and later, necrosis. The second factor is friction. When two objects move across one another, for instance, when a client is pulled up in bed, the skin is rubbed against the bed sheet. This factor can eliminate the superficial layers of the skin, making it at risk to ulceration.

To prevent skin breakdown, it is essential to maintain proper skin care. The skin should be assessed once a day, paying particular attention to surfaces of bony prominences. The area must be kept clean and dry and free from irritation by urine, sweat, feces and others. The sacral area can be applied with a moisture-barrier cream. Massaging the bony prominences must be avoided since it will cause further deep tissue damage. If the tissue is already necrotic, it is an absolute must to get rid of it by debridement since necrotic or dead tissue is an perfect region for bacterial growth and has the capacity to seriously compromise healing of wound.

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Keratosis Pilaris Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Keratosis Pilaris?

Keratosis pilaris is an autosomal dominant, genetic disorder of keratinization of hair follicles. Also termed as follicular karatosis, this is an extremely common benign condition that is manifested by the appearance of small, uneven folliculocentric keratotic bumps on the skin, often portrayed as chicken skin. Upon gross examination, it appears primarily on the back and the outer portions of the upper arms, facial cheeks, thighs and buttocks.

Globally, it affects more or less 40% of the adult population, and an estimated 50% to 80% of the adolescents.

This condition transpires once the human body produces too much natural protein called keratin. The undue protein which is cream colored, contains and entraps the hair follicles in the pore leading to the formation of hard plugs. The hard plugs inhibit the hair from exiting and reaching the surface, so it grows continuously being encapsulated inside the follicle and beneath the keratin debris. Rubbing the affected area will expose the coiled hair in a few instances. This condition endures only cosmetic consequences as it comes out as a proliferation of tiny hard lumps that are completely harmless. The disorder manifests as a diffused, irregular rash made of ten to 100, very small red bumps. When touched, the affected area seems to be like that of sandpaper in texture.

No cure or universally effective management is on hand. However there are a number of palliative treatment selections and skin care measures which need to be continuous. The effectiveness of the treatment recipe is absolutely associated to the person’s consistency. Bear in mind that these treatment options can only afford to give good temporary results. Some of these measures to avoid unwarranted skin dryness include the use of mild soap-less cleansers once or twice a day and regular skin lubrication. Other treatment methods for Keratosis Pilaris consist of topical exfoliants, topical corticosteroids and topical retinoids.

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Hidradenitis Suppurativa Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Hidradenitis Suppurativa?

Hidradenitis Suppurativa is a rare chronic inflammatory skin condition described by engorged, painful, inflamed lesions which can be the same in size with a pimple or as large as golf balls in the armpit, groin and other areas where apocrine glands are concentrated. The disease is an infection of the cutaneous apocrine glands which may extend to adjacent subcutaneous tissues and fascia.

There isn’t much in-depth study made about Hidradenitis Suppurativa. It is an orphan illness as it is considered to be very rare that no pharmaceutical companies would dare to engage in a challenge to obtain a reasonable cure. What we know is that it believed to arise when the apocrine gland channels become obstructed by excessive perspiration. The secretions are confined in the glands forcing sweat and bacteria into the surrounding tissues leading to subcutaneous inflammation and bacterial infection.

The patient with this non-contagious condition displays groups of unremitting abscesses, sebaceous cyst and multiple localized infections that are considerably painful which culminates in incision and pus drainage often leaving an open wound that will not heal. As suppuration advances, immediate cellulitis may exist. When the multiple nodules have come together, they become bordered by fibrotic reactions which result in an unsightly appearance of a scarred area.

Usually, the initial treatments include oral and topical antibiotics in addition to anti-inflammatory pills, systemic steroids, retinoids, birth control pills and the use of intra-lesional injections to reduce swelling. Strictly avoid wearing fitting clothing and shaving the affected area. The areas should be washed daily using an antibacterial soap. If severe, aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and incision and draining are recommended.

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Baby Acne Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Baby Acne?

Infants may be born with or will develop rashes and red bumps on their face. This is a very common infant condition called baby acne. This is an impermanent normal skin condition that maybe present already even from birth, although it usually comes out when the newborn is 3 to 4 weeks old until 6 months of age. It is more common in male infants.

Commonly, baby acne is attributable to the hormonal changes that occurred during pregnancy and not an indication of a hormonal problem. The maternal hormones cross the placenta and stimulate the newborn’s oil glands, in the end, giving rise to this condition.

Predominantly the pustules appear on the cheeks, chin and forehead. Baby acne is at its height when there is skin irritation, or during times when the infant is hot or fussy. When the skin becomes damp from spit-ups, saliva, milk and harsh detergents, the condition may become visibly worse for quite a few days.

Unless the condition is caused by a causal disease, in general no treatment is needed. It is better to leave it as it is. It will fade away in a few short weeks. Attempting to render topical preparations and brisk washing could only irritate their sensitive skin. Acne medications are very rarely given that these drugs are hard on the infant’s delicate skin. Baby oils and lotions won’t help and using these may only worsen the condition. Then again, using a gentle cleanser to cleanse the face once a day might help.

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Carbuncle Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is a Carbuncle?

A carbuncle is a group of numerous boils on the skin related to infected hair follicles triggered by a bacterial infection caused most commonly by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. It is very contagious and could extend to other areas of the body and may also spread to other susceptible individuals.

Compared to a furuncle which is an infection of a hair follicle and the proximate tissue, a carbuncle is a much more severe condition which in fact, involves a number of furuncles that are tightly packed together which occurs deep down in the skin. When there is more than one carbuncle forming, the skin condition is termed as carbunculosis. If left untreated or if not resolved promptly, a number of bacteria, dead tissue debris, fluid and pus form. The infective fluid may drain out of the carbuncle but in some instances, the mass is so deep-seated that it can’t drain on its own. Carbuncles classically appear on the neck, but they may also form anywhere. Other common symptoms include a lump on the skin about several centimeters in diameter, hyperthermia, itching and severe discomfort.

The immediate cause of a carbuncle still cannot be concluded. Factors that may predispose to the formation of a carbuncle include friction from tight clothing, shaving, skin damage, poor hygiene, acne, eczema, overall poor health, chronic disease such as diabetes and weakened immune system.

Since this condition usually involves a considerable amount of fluid and pus, a surgical procedure known as incision and drainage is performed to drain out the fluid and allow the infection to heal inside and out. The usual drugs prescribed by doctors to treat Staphylococcus infections are antibiotics. Never try to break open a carbuncle without doctor’s supervision for it to pump out, as doing so could spread the bacteria and worsen the condition. As soon as a carbuncle begins to drain, the immediate area must be cleaned using warm, moist cloth to speed up the healing process. Proper medical hand washing is very essential so make it as a habit. W

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Bowen’s Disease Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Bowen’s Disease?

Bowen’s disease is a neoplastic superficial skin disease having the potential for a major lateral proliferation. In the year 1912, an American dermatologist named Dr. John T. Bowen first coined and described the disease. Being basically equivalent to squamous cell carcinoma in situ, the whole tumor is limited only to the epidermis. However, if left untreated, Bowen disease may eventually advance to an invasive type of squamous cell carcinoma.

The carcinogenesis of this disease is most likely due to a multifactorial origin which includes chronic sun damage, arsenic exposure, Human papilloma virus, immunosuppression, genetics, trauma, chemical carcinogens and radiation.

Affected individuals often exhibit with an asymptomatic, gradually growing, reddish, well-defined scaly plaques occurring anywhere on the mucocutaneous surfaces and on sun-exposed areas. These plaques may likely become hyperkeratotic, scabbed, cracked and ulcerated. There is a single lesion in about two thirds of cases.

The projection is favorable and is much better than the invasive type of squamous cell carcinoma since Bowen’s disease is just a superficial carcinoma in situ and has not invaded yet the dermal layer. Therapeutic option depends on various dynamics such as lesional size, number, location, degree of functional impairment and cost. Doctors favor the utilization of photodynamic therapy, freezing and local chemotherapy with 5-fluorouracil on top of surgical excision. For smaller lesions, the most usual and favored treatment is simple excision with conventional margins. Even if the lesions characteristically are well-demarcated, the actual magnitude might be beyond the clinical margins. For that cause, the cutting out is made at least 4 mm past the margin. In cases where the lesions are larger and are poorly defined and are located on areas where tissue sparing is imperative, the excellent approach to be used is Mohs micrographic surgery. Remember that majority of the treatments have risk of disease recurrence, so a follow-up check-up after 6 to 12 months for evaluation is suggested.

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Lipoma Pictures

Jun 23 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Lipoma?

A lipoma is a benign tumor of the fat cells in a slim, fibrous capsule positioned just beneath the skin. It is acknowledged as the most common type of noncancerous soft tissue tumor. Lipomas can arise at any age, but these growths are most common in adult individuals aged 40 to 60 years old and very rare to occur in children.

The primary etiology is not yet established. A genetic involvement is possible which involves a gene rearrangement of chromosome 12. Assumption exists concerning a feasible association between blunt blow trauma and subsequent growth of lipoma.

Most of the lipomas are small, usually about 1 cm to 3 cm in diameter but can increase to sizes over and above 6 cm. But in most of the cases, the growth remains the same size over years or grows gradually. They are usually painless and have a soft, rubbery texture. A lipoma is easy to recognize as it moves promptly with minor finger pressure. They could emerge almost anywhere but these dome-shaped growths are most frequent to appear on the trunk, neck, shoulder, armpits, upper thigh and arms.

Generally, lipomas need not to be removed. Treatment is not necessary as lipomas are not cancerous. If in case the growth becomes painful and sore, cyclically gets to be infected or inflamed, empties an offensive-smelling discharge, expands in dimension or becomes cosmetically unappealing, a surgical removal is considered necessary. Treatment selections aside from surgical removal include the use of steroid injections to shrink the tumor and liposuction to remove fatty lumps.

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Acne Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Acne?

Acne is a skin condition characterized by minor, although infrequently serious, skin eruptions due to inflammation around the sebaceous glands. It is most prominent on the face, chest, arms and back. Roughly about 85% of all people have acne outbreaks in some point in their lives.

Normally, the sebaceous glands produce a fatty, oily substance known as sebum, to protect and lubricate the skin. Acne results when the sebum flow is obstructed by dead skin cells, dried sebum or by bacteria. When there is a complete blockage, whitehead is produced. When the blockage is incomplete, blackhead results. In time, the clogged hair follicle enlarges, producing a bump. The follicles continue to enlarge until the walls rupture, permitting the normal skin bacteria to enter into the deeper layer of the skin. This will result to an inflammation. If the inflammation is close to the surface, this is termed as pustule, pimple for deeper inflammation and much deeper is called cyst.

Remove excess oil by regular gentle washing of the face with non-irritating unscented soaps. However, avoid vigorous washing and scrubbing as these may irritate the skin, making the acne worse. The use of over-the-counter preparations and topical solutions with benzoyl peroxide improves acne. If the acne is severe, dermatologists may prescribe topical and oral antibiotics. If the patient has drug-resistance to antibiotics, Accutane may be used as a substitute. If acne is fully managed, scars can be dealt with resurfacing derma procedure called dermabrasion. Except in severe cases where the skin eruption is widespread, normally acne is undisruptive and responds well to treatment.

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Dermatitis Herpetiformis?

Dermatitis Herpetiformis, otherwise known as Duhring’s disease, is a chronic autoimmune blistering dermatological condition characterized by clustered excoriations, urticaria and vesicles located on the elbows, knees, back and buttocks. As the name suggests, the inflammation is similar to herpes, but it is not related to herpes virus. It was Dr. Louis Duhring who originally described the disease in the year 1884 at the University of Pennsylvania.

The papulovesicular eruptions are intensely itchy and chronic distributed symmetrically on extensor surfaces. This condition also involves the appearance of a rash. The rash results when gluten joins with IgA, both enter the bloodstream and circulates in the system and finally, gluten and IgA clog up the small blood vessels in the skin. This will draw neutrophils and release chemicals which really produce the rash. At first, the person will notice a slight pigmentation at the site where the lesions come out. Then later it will become vesicles that occur in groups.

Dermatitis herpetiformis responds well to Dapsone. For most patients, this drug is an effective treatment that will improve the disease in just a few days. It responds so quickly that itching is significantly reduced in two to three days. However, when the damage has reached the gastrointestinal tract, this pharmacological treatment has no effect.

To help control the disease, a strict gluten-free diet should be observed as lifetime management. This modification can radically decrease related intestinal damage and other complications.

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma is a common, yet histologically-distinct skin cancer that starts when there is an uninhibited multiplication of malignant squamous cells, which normally are fine, flat cells that look like scales under magnification. These cells are located in the tissue that forms the skin surface, the respiratory and digestive tracts and lining of hollow organs. The incidence increases with age with an average peak incidence at 66 years old.

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and from tanning beds is the primary reason for the majority of the cases of this cancer. Other factors that can play a role to the development of squamous cell carcinoma are old age, family history, weak immunity, xeroderma pigmentosum, smoking and skin injury.

In this type of cancer, there is a relatively slow-growing bump that possesses a rough and scaly red patches located commonly on the face, neck, arms and hands and other sun-exposed areas. The lesion may appear as a hard plaque with small blood vessels. In addition, there is an irregular bleeding from the tumor, particularly on the lips.

The treatment is dependent on the tumor’s size and anatomical location, the number and the surgeon’s preference. Usually, the treatment is curative. In fact, if this is correctly treated, the cure percentage is about 95%. Squamous cell carcinomas are usually removed surgically via simple excision. Freezing with liquid nitrogen is a successful option for very small squamous cell carcinomas. If the carcinoma is larger than 2 centimeters, the most effective treatment is the Mohs surgery. If the patient has larger tumors, or is situated in a more challenging location, diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography, or MRI to determine the degree of involvement and metastasis. If it is metastatic, radiotherapy might be the choice of treatment.

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Rosacea Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Rosacea?

Rosacea is a very common erythematous, acne-like chronic dermatological condition that affects an estimated 45 million people worldwide.

Still, there is no particular cause that can sufficiently explain the pathogenesis of this disorder. It could be a pattern of genetic predisposition and environmental factors that has caused for it to arise. There is also a link connecting the condition to mites, sun exposure, medications that may cause blood vessel dilation, gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori.

The major clinical symptoms of rosacea consist of red patches, development of telangiectases, which are small blood vessels that form just under the skin surface, diffuse facial redness, red cysts, and pink or irritated eyes. These manifestations tend appear, then disappear for weeks, months or even years and then reappear.

It frequently begins with a tendency to go red much more easily than other people do. In time, individuals may see irreversible redness on the face.

Characteristically, the nose can become red and bumpy and develop visible dilated superficial blood vessels. If left untreated, later stages can bring a disfiguring nasal condition called rhinophyma, a condition described by a bulbous, enlarged red nose and puffy cheeks.

Currently, rosacea isn’t regarded as a curable disorder, but it can usually be managed with appropriate, standard treatments. With lasers, intense pulse light, photodynamic therapy and isotretinoin made available, some cases of this condition may be drastically cleared for a long time.

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