Candidiasis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Candidiasis?

Candidiasis, also known as moniliasis, is a fungal inflammatory reaction caused by Candida fungi. Infection occurs when the fungus penetrates the tissue, colonize, and release toxins that trigger an acute inflammatory response. The most commonly affected areas are mouth, esophagus, skin, and other moist areas of the skin.

Under normal conditions, the yeast known as Candida is a normal part of microflora existing on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, mouth and in the female’s reproductive organ. Any change in the body or in the environment that would permit the yeast to suddenly proliferate can lead to candidiasis. The most common situation is the continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Harmless bacteria, in addition to a small amount of the fungus Candida albicans, are living to compete with the fungus, thus keeping them under control. With the use of antibiotics, the number of bacteria is diminished while the fungus multiplies without restriction and begins to cause symptoms. Other underlying factors that are present in a susceptible individual are escalating blood glucose level, and weakened immune system, radiation and corticosteroid therapy.

The clinical manifestations seen in the female reproductive organ include itching on the private organs, thick, white, odorless discharge, and difficulty during urination and sexual intercourse.

If the mouth is involved, the infection can cause a creamy or bluish-white discharge on the tongue and mouth, which causes sore throat.

Itch red rash with flaky patches are observable on the skin surface. In serious cases, the infection can produce chills, hyperthermia and severe body malaise.

The first goal of treatment is to improve any underlying disorder that has activated the onset of candidiasis. The other collaborative actions are pharmacologic. Antifungal agents in the form of creams, ointment, oral gels, and oral solutions are prescribed for superficial candidiasis. Clotrimazole is prescribed for mucous membrane infections and amphotericin B for systemic infection.

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Hidradenitis Suppurativa Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Hidradenitis Suppurativa?

Hidradenitis Suppurativa is a rare chronic inflammatory skin condition described by engorged, painful, inflamed lesions which can be the same in size with a pimple or as large as golf balls in the armpit, groin and other areas where apocrine glands are concentrated. The disease is an infection of the cutaneous apocrine glands which may extend to adjacent subcutaneous tissues and fascia.

There isn’t much in-depth study made about Hidradenitis Suppurativa. It is an orphan illness as it is considered to be very rare that no pharmaceutical companies would dare to engage in a challenge to obtain a reasonable cure. What we know is that it believed to arise when the apocrine gland channels become obstructed by excessive perspiration. The secretions are confined in the glands forcing sweat and bacteria into the surrounding tissues leading to subcutaneous inflammation and bacterial infection.

The patient with this non-contagious condition displays groups of unremitting abscesses, sebaceous cyst and multiple localized infections that are considerably painful which culminates in incision and pus drainage often leaving an open wound that will not heal. As suppuration advances, immediate cellulitis may exist. When the multiple nodules have come together, they become bordered by fibrotic reactions which result in an unsightly appearance of a scarred area.

Usually, the initial treatments include oral and topical antibiotics in addition to anti-inflammatory pills, systemic steroids, retinoids, birth control pills and the use of intra-lesional injections to reduce swelling. Strictly avoid wearing fitting clothing and shaving the affected area. The areas should be washed daily using an antibacterial soap. If severe, aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and incision and draining are recommended.

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Kidney Stones Pictures

Jun 21 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Kidney stones?

Also known as renal calculi, kidney stones are formed by deposition of crystal aggregations from insoluble substances like nitrogenous wastes and calcium compounds in the kidney.

Naturally, these stones leave the body by passage in the urine. Small pieces of stones easily pass through the ureter and out through the urethra when one urinates without causing any symptoms. Larger ones which are about 2-5 mm in diameter may never leave the kidney; sometimes however, it enters the ureter and causes renal colic or an intermittent, severe pain and spasm until the stone reaches the bladder. The pain is caused by the peristaltic contractions as the ureter attempts to expel the obstruction. It is commonly felt in the flank and lower abdomen radiating to the groin lasting for about 20 minutes to 1 hour

The etiology of urinary stone formation is complicated. It encompasses a number of factors, including, low urine volume, hereditary factors, high calcium levels in the blood, diet high in oxalate, urinary tract infections, and excessively acidic urine.

An individual is advised to drink at least 3 liters of water every day to flush the stones into the bladder. Trap the stones when it passes by filtering urine with a piece of gauze or filter so that it can be used for stone analysis. OTC pain relievers taken in moderation are recommended. Doctors may prescribe antispasmodic drugs to relax the ureter muscle during passage of stones. They may also prescribe potassium citrate to decrease urine acidity.

With a procedure called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, larger stones can be crushed via condensed bursts of sound waves. Dietary modification is advised to prevent reappearance of stones. Avoid sodium, foods rich in oxalate, and animal protein. In extremely rare cases where patient does not respond well to treatment options, a surgical operation is required to take away the kidney.

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