Acne Scars Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

Acne Scars

The end results of inflammation within the dermis caused by acne are acne scars. It is more likely that acne cysts leave behind permanent scars than other types of acne since cystic acne causes nodules to form underneath the skin.

When a wound from acne attempts to heal itself, too much collagen gathers in the affected spot, creating a red or hyperpigmented mark on the skin. This is not yet a scar, somewhat a post-inflammatory transformation which is noticed as the skin undergoes healing ang remodeling processes that take roughly about 6 to 12 months. If the area will be free from acne lesions for a long time, the skin can be repaired naturally. If the skin defect or the pigmentation still exists after 12 months, the skin condition is called a permanent acne scar.

An acne scar can be in different forms. Scars can be identified as an ice pick scar, box car scar, rolling scar or a hypertrophic scar. Ice pick scars are deep pits causing an indentation on the surface and is the most common and classic sign of acne scarring. The skin’s surface appears to have been punctured with an ice pick. Usually, these kinds of scars are narrower than 2 mm, but can extend into the deep dermis and even the subcutaneous layer.

Box car scars are round indentations with angular edges that typically occur on the cheeks. Scars with wave-like appearance are rolling scars. This scar is a consequence of binding of normal-looking skin to the fatty tissue below. Splitting up the subcutaneous fibrous bands is a way to correct a rolling scar. Thick, keloid scars are the hypertrophic scars.

In order to prevent the occurrence of post-inflammatory changes is to prevent acne from developing. Understanding the contributing factors that provoke acne and using appropriate treatment routines are examples of initial measures of acne prevention.

Knowing the role of free radicals in skin damage, using antioxidants to help treat permanent scars would help. Sadly, no scientific research would establish antioxidants as cures for skin damage. In fact when Vitamin E, when used topically to healing wounds causes more harm.

There are various procedures that are available today for acne scar correction. Some of these treatments are dermal fillers, punch excision with or without skin graft replacement, punch elevation, subcutaneous excision and laser resurfacing. Bear in mind that each procedure has its own pros and cons, and others are usually rendered in combination for best results.

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Candidiasis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Candidiasis?

Candidiasis, also known as moniliasis, is a fungal inflammatory reaction caused by Candida fungi. Infection occurs when the fungus penetrates the tissue, colonize, and release toxins that trigger an acute inflammatory response. The most commonly affected areas are mouth, esophagus, skin, and other moist areas of the skin.

Under normal conditions, the yeast known as Candida is a normal part of microflora existing on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, mouth and in the female’s reproductive organ. Any change in the body or in the environment that would permit the yeast to suddenly proliferate can lead to candidiasis. The most common situation is the continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Harmless bacteria, in addition to a small amount of the fungus Candida albicans, are living to compete with the fungus, thus keeping them under control. With the use of antibiotics, the number of bacteria is diminished while the fungus multiplies without restriction and begins to cause symptoms. Other underlying factors that are present in a susceptible individual are escalating blood glucose level, and weakened immune system, radiation and corticosteroid therapy.

The clinical manifestations seen in the female reproductive organ include itching on the private organs, thick, white, odorless discharge, and difficulty during urination and sexual intercourse.

If the mouth is involved, the infection can cause a creamy or bluish-white discharge on the tongue and mouth, which causes sore throat.

Itch red rash with flaky patches are observable on the skin surface. In serious cases, the infection can produce chills, hyperthermia and severe body malaise.

The first goal of treatment is to improve any underlying disorder that has activated the onset of candidiasis. The other collaborative actions are pharmacologic. Antifungal agents in the form of creams, ointment, oral gels, and oral solutions are prescribed for superficial candidiasis. Clotrimazole is prescribed for mucous membrane infections and amphotericin B for systemic infection.

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Bed Sores Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Bed sores?

Bed sores, also identified as pressure ulcers or decubitus ulcers, are confined area of tissue death that are likely to progress when soft tissue is compressed between a bony prominence and an outside surface for an extended period of time. This kind of skin ulceration is mostly observed in patients who are bedridden and those who are improperly positioned in bed.

Because of the compression, blood flow to that area is radically reduced which causes blanching. The common compensatory response of the body when there is absent or reduced blood flow is vasodilation, so if the pressure is removed, the skin area takes on a brighter color or what we call reactive hyperemia. If the area blanches with fingertip pressure or if redness on the area fades away within 1 hour, tissue damage is negative. But if after one hour and there is still redness, then tissue damage exists. Other warning signs are discolored and swollen skin especially above the bony prominences and signs of infection.

In combination with pressure, there are few other forces which contribute to the formation of decubitus ulcers, such as shearing and friction. Shearing, which accounts for a high frequency of sacral bed sores, is the force applied against the skin surface when a patient is moved or repositioned in bed, by log rolling, pulling, pushing in bed. This action results in the straightening and tearing of small blood vessels, leading to a reduction of blood flow and later, necrosis. The second factor is friction. When two objects move across one another, for instance, when a client is pulled up in bed, the skin is rubbed against the bed sheet. This factor can eliminate the superficial layers of the skin, making it at risk to ulceration.

To prevent skin breakdown, it is essential to maintain proper skin care. The skin should be assessed once a day, paying particular attention to surfaces of bony prominences. The area must be kept clean and dry and free from irritation by urine, sweat, feces and others. The sacral area can be applied with a moisture-barrier cream. Massaging the bony prominences must be avoided since it will cause further deep tissue damage. If the tissue is already necrotic, it is an absolute must to get rid of it by debridement since necrotic or dead tissue is an perfect region for bacterial growth and has the capacity to seriously compromise healing of wound.

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Baby Acne Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Baby Acne?

Infants may be born with or will develop rashes and red bumps on their face. This is a very common infant condition called baby acne. This is an impermanent normal skin condition that maybe present already even from birth, although it usually comes out when the newborn is 3 to 4 weeks old until 6 months of age. It is more common in male infants.

Commonly, baby acne is attributable to the hormonal changes that occurred during pregnancy and not an indication of a hormonal problem. The maternal hormones cross the placenta and stimulate the newborn’s oil glands, in the end, giving rise to this condition.

Predominantly the pustules appear on the cheeks, chin and forehead. Baby acne is at its height when there is skin irritation, or during times when the infant is hot or fussy. When the skin becomes damp from spit-ups, saliva, milk and harsh detergents, the condition may become visibly worse for quite a few days.

Unless the condition is caused by a causal disease, in general no treatment is needed. It is better to leave it as it is. It will fade away in a few short weeks. Attempting to render topical preparations and brisk washing could only irritate their sensitive skin. Acne medications are very rarely given that these drugs are hard on the infant’s delicate skin. Baby oils and lotions won’t help and using these may only worsen the condition. Then again, using a gentle cleanser to cleanse the face once a day might help.

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Dermatitis Herpetiformis Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Dermatitis Herpetiformis?

Dermatitis Herpetiformis, otherwise known as Duhring’s disease, is a chronic autoimmune blistering dermatological condition characterized by clustered excoriations, urticaria and vesicles located on the elbows, knees, back and buttocks. As the name suggests, the inflammation is similar to herpes, but it is not related to herpes virus. It was Dr. Louis Duhring who originally described the disease in the year 1884 at the University of Pennsylvania.

The papulovesicular eruptions are intensely itchy and chronic distributed symmetrically on extensor surfaces. This condition also involves the appearance of a rash. The rash results when gluten joins with IgA, both enter the bloodstream and circulates in the system and finally, gluten and IgA clog up the small blood vessels in the skin. This will draw neutrophils and release chemicals which really produce the rash. At first, the person will notice a slight pigmentation at the site where the lesions come out. Then later it will become vesicles that occur in groups.

Dermatitis herpetiformis responds well to Dapsone. For most patients, this drug is an effective treatment that will improve the disease in just a few days. It responds so quickly that itching is significantly reduced in two to three days. However, when the damage has reached the gastrointestinal tract, this pharmacological treatment has no effect.

To help control the disease, a strict gluten-free diet should be observed as lifetime management. This modification can radically decrease related intestinal damage and other complications.

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Rosacea Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Rosacea?

Rosacea is a very common erythematous, acne-like chronic dermatological condition that affects an estimated 45 million people worldwide.

Still, there is no particular cause that can sufficiently explain the pathogenesis of this disorder. It could be a pattern of genetic predisposition and environmental factors that has caused for it to arise. There is also a link connecting the condition to mites, sun exposure, medications that may cause blood vessel dilation, gastrointestinal diseases and Helicobacter pylori.

The major clinical symptoms of rosacea consist of red patches, development of telangiectases, which are small blood vessels that form just under the skin surface, diffuse facial redness, red cysts, and pink or irritated eyes. These manifestations tend appear, then disappear for weeks, months or even years and then reappear.

It frequently begins with a tendency to go red much more easily than other people do. In time, individuals may see irreversible redness on the face.

Characteristically, the nose can become red and bumpy and develop visible dilated superficial blood vessels. If left untreated, later stages can bring a disfiguring nasal condition called rhinophyma, a condition described by a bulbous, enlarged red nose and puffy cheeks.

Currently, rosacea isn’t regarded as a curable disorder, but it can usually be managed with appropriate, standard treatments. With lasers, intense pulse light, photodynamic therapy and isotretinoin made available, some cases of this condition may be drastically cleared for a long time.

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Tick Bite Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Tick bite?

In the United States alone, ticks are considered to be the primary vectors of human diseases. The concern here is not the bite itself but the toxins and microorganisms present in the tick’s saliva transmitted via tick bites.

Ticks are arthropods that feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals. Painlessly, they excavate into the skin with their feeding part, bite, withdraw blood and finally drop off after they become swollen as they are filled with blood.

There are roughly 800 species but only two families of ticks, namely Ixodidae and Argasidae, are identified to spread infections to humans. Ixodidae or the hard ticks possess a tough back plate that defines their appearance. They are likely to attach and feed for hours to several days. On the other hand, Argasidae or the soft ticks have rounded bodies and do not possess a hard back plate. They feed only for less than an hour.

In almost all cases of tick bites, the area bitten by ticks develops usually painless, red rashes. Usually, there is a formation of classic bull’s eye on the skin surface. Classifying theses rashes is a significant problem as it is very similar to skin infection and inflammation. Later, the bite site develops burning, itching and hardly ever, a localized intense pain is experienced. Some individuals may develop shortness of breath and paralysis.

When a tick is spotted in the body, remove it right away to avoid a skin reaction and decrease the odds of getting infected. With a pair of curved forceps, snatch the head of the tick held as near to the skin and pull it straight up. Never squeeze the tick. Pull the head of the tick gently away from the skin until the tick lets go. Put it in a container with a tight-fitting lid for examination. Clean the area of the bite with a rubbing alcohol and afterwards, wash hands with soap and water.

People living in regions where the risk of getting Lyme disease is relatively high, a single dose of doxycycline can prevent the disease if taken in 3 days of a tick bite.

To help decrease pain, itching and inflammation, ice application for about 15 to 20 minutes every hour for as long as necessary is recommended. Doctors may suggest antibiotics, antihistamines, local anesthetics, skin protectants such as calamine and topical corticosteroids.

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Kidney Stones Pictures

Jun 21 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Kidney stones?

Also known as renal calculi, kidney stones are formed by deposition of crystal aggregations from insoluble substances like nitrogenous wastes and calcium compounds in the kidney.

Naturally, these stones leave the body by passage in the urine. Small pieces of stones easily pass through the ureter and out through the urethra when one urinates without causing any symptoms. Larger ones which are about 2-5 mm in diameter may never leave the kidney; sometimes however, it enters the ureter and causes renal colic or an intermittent, severe pain and spasm until the stone reaches the bladder. The pain is caused by the peristaltic contractions as the ureter attempts to expel the obstruction. It is commonly felt in the flank and lower abdomen radiating to the groin lasting for about 20 minutes to 1 hour

The etiology of urinary stone formation is complicated. It encompasses a number of factors, including, low urine volume, hereditary factors, high calcium levels in the blood, diet high in oxalate, urinary tract infections, and excessively acidic urine.

An individual is advised to drink at least 3 liters of water every day to flush the stones into the bladder. Trap the stones when it passes by filtering urine with a piece of gauze or filter so that it can be used for stone analysis. OTC pain relievers taken in moderation are recommended. Doctors may prescribe antispasmodic drugs to relax the ureter muscle during passage of stones. They may also prescribe potassium citrate to decrease urine acidity.

With a procedure called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, larger stones can be crushed via condensed bursts of sound waves. Dietary modification is advised to prevent reappearance of stones. Avoid sodium, foods rich in oxalate, and animal protein. In extremely rare cases where patient does not respond well to treatment options, a surgical operation is required to take away the kidney.

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Boils Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is a boil?

Also termed as a furuncle, a boil is a deep-seated infection of the hair follicle which is generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It is a confined dermatological infection that commonly begins as a painful, reddened, inflamed area. After a while, the mottled area becomes firm, rigid, and tender. The white or yellow point at the midpoint of the boil softens and becomes filled with pus. In groups, they are called as carbuncles. Individual may as well develop hyperthermia, swollen lymph nodes, and body weakness.

There are several causes of boil formation. It can be brought by an ingrown hair. The bacterial colonization starts in the hair follicles and produces a localized inflammation. In the case of acne, the reason is the plugged sweat glands becoming infected. The skin forms as a line of defense against materials and pathogens foreign to the body. Any break in the integrity of the skin can become an pustule should it get infected with bacteria. People who have diabetes, nutritional deficiencies, poor sanitation, chemical exposure and those who are immunosuppressed are greatly susceptible to skin infections.

Proper hygiene practices and the frequent use of antibacterial soaps help stop bacteria from accumulating on the skin surface. These measures trim down the odds for the hair follicles to get contaminated.

Opposite to the conventional idea, boils need not to be drained in order to heal; as a matter of fact, opening the infected area can initiate further infections. Never squeeze or lance the boil with needle without the supervision of a doctor because it may just worsen the condition. Heat application is the principal treatment for most boils. Heat application typically with hot soaks enhances blood circulation to the involved area and permits the body to better combat the infection by carrying antibodies and WBCs to the site of infection. Antibiotics are not needed in all situations. They may be recommended by the doctor if there is severe infection after determining the type of bacteria through culture and sensitivity.

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Impetigo Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Impetigo?

Impetigo is a common, superficial, extremely infectious bacterial infection of the skin generally caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, staphylococcus aureus or by multiple bacteria.

The mode of transmission is via direct contact with lesions and with nasal carriers. Dried streptococci suspended in the air are not transmittable to the intact skin. The period of incubation is 1 to 3 days. It is very contagious and infection may spread from one body area to other exposed areas of the body and may infect other people sharing with them their clothing, linen, towels, combs and other personal belongings soiled with exudates.

At first, the lesions appear as small, red pustules which quickly become isolated, thin-walled vesicles which will soon rupture leaving a denuded area that discharges a honey-like serous liquid. After it hardens on the skin surface, they become covered with stuck-on golden yellow crusts. Removing the crust will expose the smooth, red, moist surface on which new crust will form again.

There are two categories of impetigo namely bullous impetigo and non-bullous impetigo. Bullous impetigo involves larger fluid-containing vesicles that is clear at first and then becomes hazy. The most widespread type of impetigo is the non-bullous. In reverse to bullous impetigo, the blisters in non-bullous are tiny. These blisters will burst open in the end leaving a raw patch of red skin that suppurates fluid. Steadily, a honey-yellow coating coats the area.

Frequent hand washing and other good hygiene measures can facilitate prevention. Take baths regularly and clean the skin with mild soap and water. Prevent spreading the infection among members of the family by using a separate towel. Separate the infected individual’s personal belongings and wash the items in hot water. Other members who are not infected should pay special care to areas of the skin with impaired integrity and keep it clean and protected from getting infected. Persons who have impetigo are advised to stay indoors for a few days.

If the affected area is extensive and there is a concern about complications, then systemic antibiotic therapy is the usual treatment. Oral penicillin may be prescribed to patients with nonbullous impetigo. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins are recommended to patients who have bullous impetigo. If the patient has previous allergic reaction to penicillin, erythromycin is a useful substitute. If the disease is just limited to a small area, a topical antibiotic may be prescribed. An alternative to topical antibiotics is hydrogen peroxide.

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Tinea Versicolor Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Tinea Versicolor?

Dermatomycosis furfuracea, also called as Tinea versicolor is a condition distinguished by a rash on the trunk and proximal extremities, majorly caused by Malassezia globosa. This yeast is naturally living on the human skin and only becomes disruptive under special circumstances, including high temperature, weakened immunity, and hormonal abnormalities. It is assumed that the yeast feeds on lipids on top of dead skin cells.

Generally, oval-shaped spots with sharp borders roughly about ¼ to 1 inch in diameter often come into the skin surface together to form a bigger patch. Frequently affected body areas are the back, upper arm, torso, lower legs, armpit, and could also be show on the face. There is an infrequent fine scaling of the skin which gives an external ash-like scale. During a strenuous activity or in warm days, the body temperature is elevated. Sometimes when there is an elevation of the body temperature, pin-prick itching is felt in the affected areas. The warmer the temperature, the worse it gets. The distressing itch stops once sweating begins.

Pigmentary alterations occur. The term versicolor presents the detail that it brings about color shifts to the involved skin by either becoming lighter or darker than the adjacent skin surfaces. Commonly, people who have dark complexion will have hypopigmentation, while those with lighter skin tone will have hyperpigmentation. These temporary discolorations are termed as sun fungus.

For the treatment of tinea versicolor, wash and dry the affected skin area. A thin layer of antifungal agents are applied to the skin two times a day for less than 2 weeks. Some doctors prescribe the most economical yet effective treatment which is selenium sulfide shampoo to be applied for 10-15 minutes before rinsing; done twice a week for about 2 to 4 weeks. In severe, massive and recurring cases, Nizoral pills will eliminate the fungus and relieve any itch.

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Ringworm Pictures

Jun 19 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Ringworm?

Ringworm or Dermatophytosis is a very common skin disease caused by several different fungal infections collectively known as tinea. The term ringworm originates from the early belief that the disease was caused by a parasitic worm which is untrue. The lifetime risk of an individual to develop this superficial fungal disease is between 20 to 30%.

Ringworm Symptoms

  • The infection causes flaking, ring-shaped, itchy red patches that develop on various parts that could erupt and ooze. The patches often have sharply-defined borders growing to nearly one inch crossways. They are frequently redder around the outside with clear tone in the middle. This forms the manifestation of a ring wherein the infection remains active.
  • There are hairless patches and scales on the scalp, and scratchy, scaling irritation under a beard.
  • Nails thicken, become discolored, crusty and rough and could even crumble.
  • There is dry scaling and fissuring of the skin between the toes.
  • The groin is a usual area of infection. Usually on the inner area of the upper thigh, scaly, red-brown patches develop.

Ringworm Causes

Naturally, bacteria and fungi live on our bodies. A number of these microorganisms are helpful while others are opportunistic, multiply in haste to form contagious diseases. When a specific fungus thrives and multiplies anywhere, ringworm arises. The mode of transmission is via direct skin-to-skin contact, and contact with inanimate, personal objects. Exposure to infected animals is one mode of transmission. In very uncommon cases, infection can be attributed to exposure to infected soil. If the soil does have ample nutrients, the fungus that causes ringworm in humans can survive for an extended period of time. Still, for a person to become infected in this mode, the individual would have to have prolonged contact with harshly contaminated soil or else the odds are thin.

Ringworm Treatment

Individuals with ringworm respond well to self-care treatment. They are advised to keep their affected skin as clean and dry as possible. If it starts to erupt, apply damp compress to clear out the area. Use OTC antifungal powders, creams and lotions especially those containing ketoconazole, clotrimazole, terbinafine and miconazole. These are generally used once or twice a day. Infection begins to disappear within a week. With continued application for the recommended amount of time will guarantee the total eradication of the fungal infection.

When there is a severe or persistent infection and OTC treatments fail, it may require treatment by a physician. Antifungal oral agents may be given.

If there is ring worm on the groin, the individual should wear cotton underwear and change it more than once per day. If there is athlete’s foot, change the socks frequently to keep the feet dry.

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