Candidiasis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Candidiasis?

Candidiasis, also known as moniliasis, is a fungal inflammatory reaction caused by Candida fungi. Infection occurs when the fungus penetrates the tissue, colonize, and release toxins that trigger an acute inflammatory response. The most commonly affected areas are mouth, esophagus, skin, and other moist areas of the skin.

Under normal conditions, the yeast known as Candida is a normal part of microflora existing on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, mouth and in the female’s reproductive organ. Any change in the body or in the environment that would permit the yeast to suddenly proliferate can lead to candidiasis. The most common situation is the continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Harmless bacteria, in addition to a small amount of the fungus Candida albicans, are living to compete with the fungus, thus keeping them under control. With the use of antibiotics, the number of bacteria is diminished while the fungus multiplies without restriction and begins to cause symptoms. Other underlying factors that are present in a susceptible individual are escalating blood glucose level, and weakened immune system, radiation and corticosteroid therapy.

The clinical manifestations seen in the female reproductive organ include itching on the private organs, thick, white, odorless discharge, and difficulty during urination and sexual intercourse.

If the mouth is involved, the infection can cause a creamy or bluish-white discharge on the tongue and mouth, which causes sore throat.

Itch red rash with flaky patches are observable on the skin surface. In serious cases, the infection can produce chills, hyperthermia and severe body malaise.

The first goal of treatment is to improve any underlying disorder that has activated the onset of candidiasis. The other collaborative actions are pharmacologic. Antifungal agents in the form of creams, ointment, oral gels, and oral solutions are prescribed for superficial candidiasis. Clotrimazole is prescribed for mucous membrane infections and amphotericin B for systemic infection.

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Acne Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Acne?

Acne is a skin condition characterized by minor, although infrequently serious, skin eruptions due to inflammation around the sebaceous glands. It is most prominent on the face, chest, arms and back. Roughly about 85% of all people have acne outbreaks in some point in their lives.

Normally, the sebaceous glands produce a fatty, oily substance known as sebum, to protect and lubricate the skin. Acne results when the sebum flow is obstructed by dead skin cells, dried sebum or by bacteria. When there is a complete blockage, whitehead is produced. When the blockage is incomplete, blackhead results. In time, the clogged hair follicle enlarges, producing a bump. The follicles continue to enlarge until the walls rupture, permitting the normal skin bacteria to enter into the deeper layer of the skin. This will result to an inflammation. If the inflammation is close to the surface, this is termed as pustule, pimple for deeper inflammation and much deeper is called cyst.

Remove excess oil by regular gentle washing of the face with non-irritating unscented soaps. However, avoid vigorous washing and scrubbing as these may irritate the skin, making the acne worse. The use of over-the-counter preparations and topical solutions with benzoyl peroxide improves acne. If the acne is severe, dermatologists may prescribe topical and oral antibiotics. If the patient has drug-resistance to antibiotics, Accutane may be used as a substitute. If acne is fully managed, scars can be dealt with resurfacing derma procedure called dermabrasion. Except in severe cases where the skin eruption is widespread, normally acne is undisruptive and responds well to treatment.

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Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma is a common, yet histologically-distinct skin cancer that starts when there is an uninhibited multiplication of malignant squamous cells, which normally are fine, flat cells that look like scales under magnification. These cells are located in the tissue that forms the skin surface, the respiratory and digestive tracts and lining of hollow organs. The incidence increases with age with an average peak incidence at 66 years old.

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and from tanning beds is the primary reason for the majority of the cases of this cancer. Other factors that can play a role to the development of squamous cell carcinoma are old age, family history, weak immunity, xeroderma pigmentosum, smoking and skin injury.

In this type of cancer, there is a relatively slow-growing bump that possesses a rough and scaly red patches located commonly on the face, neck, arms and hands and other sun-exposed areas. The lesion may appear as a hard plaque with small blood vessels. In addition, there is an irregular bleeding from the tumor, particularly on the lips.

The treatment is dependent on the tumor’s size and anatomical location, the number and the surgeon’s preference. Usually, the treatment is curative. In fact, if this is correctly treated, the cure percentage is about 95%. Squamous cell carcinomas are usually removed surgically via simple excision. Freezing with liquid nitrogen is a successful option for very small squamous cell carcinomas. If the carcinoma is larger than 2 centimeters, the most effective treatment is the Mohs surgery. If the patient has larger tumors, or is situated in a more challenging location, diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography, or MRI to determine the degree of involvement and metastasis. If it is metastatic, radiotherapy might be the choice of treatment.

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Scabies Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Scabies?

Conversationally established as the seven-year itch, Scabies is a highly communicable skin infection described by the eruptive lesions created from the skin excavations of the female itch mites called Sarcoptes scabiei. These eight-legged parasites are microscopic measuring around 0.33 to 0.45 mm but at times they are detectable as white pinpoints so a magnifying glass is of use. The parasite burrows underneath the epidermis to lay eggs and initiates an intense allergic irritation.

Scabies Causes

Any person can develop infection or re-infection since it is easily spread most often by prolonged, direct physical contact with infected individuals. The disease may also be transmitted from inanimate objects or by sexual contact. The time-span needed for the female itch mite to burrow on infected skin and lay eggs is within a day from the initial contact with the infected individual.

Scabies Symptoms

The clinical manifestations involve intense and unrelenting itchiness which becomes worse at night and after a hot shower. There are also superficial burrows which are often linear or s-shaped and come out as tiny, wavy, flushed, grayish or dark outlines on the skin surface, especially on the folds under the arms, around the wrists and between the fingers, and other moist areas. When larger areas of the body are involved and secondary infection is serious, hyperthermia, headache and body weakness will occur.

Scabies Treatment

This infection is more frequently observed in congested vicinities with insanitary living situations. It is a sign of poor hygiene. Care must be observed regarding effective preventive measures including good personal hygiene, regular changing of clean clothing, beddings and towels, exposing the linens used under the sun, washing used linens in hot water, general house cleaning and improving the sanitation of the environment. Stuffed toys can be wrapped up in a plastic bag for three days because the parasites cannot live on for too long being away from host’s skin. All rooms in the residence have got to be vacuumed and the bag should then be destroyed.

The medical management includes assessing the whole family of the infected individual before assuming any treatment, for as long as one member stays infected, others will potentially get the disease. Dermatologists treat this infection by recommending a medicated lotion to destroy the itch mites. People are instructed to apply permethrin cream from the neck down and let it remain on the skin during the night before it is washed off. This cream application is regularly repeated in a week. Benzyl benzoate emulsion and Kwell ointment are effective but should be limitedly applied entirely to the skin.

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Pityriasis Rosea Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Pityriasis Rosea?

Pityriasis rosea is a non-dangerous skin rash but inflicts considerable distress on some people. It typically starts with a solitary mother patch lesion, and then after 1 to 2 weeks, a generalized body rash lasting about six weeks follows.

The cause is undefined but it suggests a viral infection as the culprit based on its clinical presentation and immunologic reactions. As evidence shows, there is viral reactivation of human herpes virus-6 and HHV-7 but this is not consistent to some other cases because no antibodies were identified. Adding to the controversy is the fact that HHV-7 is commonly found in healthy people.

In most of the reported cases, an upper respiratory tract infection comes first. Then, a single elliptical, red herald patches around 2 to 10 cm. emerges characteristically on the abdomen. On occasions, the mother patch may come out on hidden areas like in the armpit for instance. 7 to 14 days after the herald patch appeared, large daughter patches of red, egg-shaped rash come out on the upper body and can also appear in the mouth. On rare cases, an inverse distribution of the rash occurs mostly on the extremities. Generally, the red patches stretches broadly across the chest going by the rib-line in a Christmas-tree distribution. Several days later, small circular patches appear on the back, neck and on the cheeks. The prognosis is good, with patients recovering completely for only a matter of weeks or in some cases up to six months.

There is no definitive prevention as the cause is still undetermined. Similar with common viral infections, preventive measures include proper hygiene, frequent hand washing, avoiding crowded places and contact to people who cough and sneeze.

This skin condition usually goes away without treatment Antihistamines and topical corticosteroids provide relief from itching and improve the appearance of the rash. Steroids however may cause the new skin to take longer to tone with the surrounding skin color. Use only soap with moisturizer. Exposure to direct sunlight for about 10 to 15 minutes a day can help the lesions resolve quickly.

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