Cold Sores Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Cold Sores?

Medically known as orolabial herpes, fever blisters or cold sores are tiny, painful, erythematous-based clusters of grouped vesicles that come out on the lips that are caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The herpes simplex virus can easily penetrate the body via cracks in the skin around the mouth. The virus can be transmitted through sharing of eating utensils, kissing and touching the affected individual’s saliva.

A premonitory symptom of a tingling and burning pain heralds the appearance of the fluid-filled blisters by up to a day. They are typically limited to the mouth area, but they can still occur on the nose, chin and cheeks. After the sores emerge, they typically burst open leading to a clear fluid leakage. After it becomes dry, it crust over and fades away after two weeks at most. Some individuals may carry the herpes virus but they don’t get the condition.

Prevention is the best way to keep away from getting the viral infection. Avoid sharing eating utensils, drinking cups or any other personal items to any person. Avoid being exposed to body fluids of an infected individual.

Orolabial herpes usually heal on their own just within several days. Be cautious not to use topical creams with steroids as they exacerbate manifestations. There are more than a few medications available that can reduce the period or symptoms of fever blisters. Treatment options include topical Acyclovir creams, ointments and other prescription-strength topical antiviral medications.

No responses yet

Candidiasis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Candidiasis?

Candidiasis, also known as moniliasis, is a fungal inflammatory reaction caused by Candida fungi. Infection occurs when the fungus penetrates the tissue, colonize, and release toxins that trigger an acute inflammatory response. The most commonly affected areas are mouth, esophagus, skin, and other moist areas of the skin.

Under normal conditions, the yeast known as Candida is a normal part of microflora existing on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, mouth and in the female’s reproductive organ. Any change in the body or in the environment that would permit the yeast to suddenly proliferate can lead to candidiasis. The most common situation is the continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Harmless bacteria, in addition to a small amount of the fungus Candida albicans, are living to compete with the fungus, thus keeping them under control. With the use of antibiotics, the number of bacteria is diminished while the fungus multiplies without restriction and begins to cause symptoms. Other underlying factors that are present in a susceptible individual are escalating blood glucose level, and weakened immune system, radiation and corticosteroid therapy.

The clinical manifestations seen in the female reproductive organ include itching on the private organs, thick, white, odorless discharge, and difficulty during urination and sexual intercourse.

If the mouth is involved, the infection can cause a creamy or bluish-white discharge on the tongue and mouth, which causes sore throat.

Itch red rash with flaky patches are observable on the skin surface. In serious cases, the infection can produce chills, hyperthermia and severe body malaise.

The first goal of treatment is to improve any underlying disorder that has activated the onset of candidiasis. The other collaborative actions are pharmacologic. Antifungal agents in the form of creams, ointment, oral gels, and oral solutions are prescribed for superficial candidiasis. Clotrimazole is prescribed for mucous membrane infections and amphotericin B for systemic infection.

No responses yet

Squamous Cell Carcinoma Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Squamous Cell Carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma is a common, yet histologically-distinct skin cancer that starts when there is an uninhibited multiplication of malignant squamous cells, which normally are fine, flat cells that look like scales under magnification. These cells are located in the tissue that forms the skin surface, the respiratory and digestive tracts and lining of hollow organs. The incidence increases with age with an average peak incidence at 66 years old.

Chronic exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun and from tanning beds is the primary reason for the majority of the cases of this cancer. Other factors that can play a role to the development of squamous cell carcinoma are old age, family history, weak immunity, xeroderma pigmentosum, smoking and skin injury.

In this type of cancer, there is a relatively slow-growing bump that possesses a rough and scaly red patches located commonly on the face, neck, arms and hands and other sun-exposed areas. The lesion may appear as a hard plaque with small blood vessels. In addition, there is an irregular bleeding from the tumor, particularly on the lips.

The treatment is dependent on the tumor’s size and anatomical location, the number and the surgeon’s preference. Usually, the treatment is curative. In fact, if this is correctly treated, the cure percentage is about 95%. Squamous cell carcinomas are usually removed surgically via simple excision. Freezing with liquid nitrogen is a successful option for very small squamous cell carcinomas. If the carcinoma is larger than 2 centimeters, the most effective treatment is the Mohs surgery. If the patient has larger tumors, or is situated in a more challenging location, diagnostic tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography, or MRI to determine the degree of involvement and metastasis. If it is metastatic, radiotherapy might be the choice of treatment.

No responses yet

Erythema Multiforme Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Erythema multiforme?

Erythema multiforme is a common dermatological condition of idiopathic origin, potentially mediated by the accumulation of immune complex in the microvasculature surface of the skin and mucosa. It is a severe, self-limiting inflammatory skin condition under type IV hypersensitivity reaction triggered by the exposure to certain medications, contagion and other factors. In general, it affects the young population.

Symptoms

Erythema multiforme minor

Of the two types, EM minor is the less serious and accounts for 80% of Erythema multiforme cases. The rash comes out over a few days somewhat expanding to around 2 cm. but in some patients more than a few crops go after each other in single attack. Slight burning or mild itch may be existing but becomes most intense over the back of the hands and feet. Classically, the rash appears as bull’s eye shaped circles on the palms arranged symmetrically and lasts for 7 to 14 days and then resolves leaving a remaining brown colored discoloration. There is an involvement of the oral mucosa for 70% of the cases. Oral lesions in the lips, palate, and gums are common. The eyes are affected. There are red conjunctivae and eye swelling and excessive tearing. There are also excruciating erosions on the genitals.

Stevens Johnson syndrome

In this situation, there is larger injury. Together with the erythematous eruption, there are a few significant hemorrhagic blisters present. There are extensive blood blisters predominant on the torso and face.

Causes

The Pathophysiology of Erythema multiforme is not yet fully implicated but it appears that there is a taking part of the cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction by the immune system that can be elicited by variety of stimuli, specifically bacteria, viruses and chemicals.

As revealed in a current global future analysis, the most important cause of Erythema multiforme is Herpes simplex virus, but bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections are also correlated. In the case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, it looks to play a smaller role. Drugs were found to be a more universal trigger for these cases. For Erythema Multiforme minor and major, the principal risk factor is history of herpes infection or recurrent case of herpes.

Treatment

The treatment starts with identifying the activating factor and removing it, however, this is not all the time achievable. If drug is the culprit, it must be discontinued as soon as possible. If the cause is infection, it must then be properly treated following the performance of diagnostic tests.

Erythema multiforme minor is typically without a clinical symptom therefore requires no treatment, as the lesions are self-limiting and will disappear within a month. If EM minor is herpes virus induced, Zovirax is useful.

Mild cases of Erythema multiforme require only symptomatic management. Give analgesics as needed, skin care; topical steroids, and soothing mouthwash and gargles. Aggressive observation and fluids and electrolytes replacement are of dominant significance.

No responses yet

Lichen Planus Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Lichen Planus?

Lichen planus is a common, chronic mucocutaneous disease that affects a wide area of the skin, tongue, genitalia, and oral mucosa.

The cause is still undefined. Some of the lichenoid reactions occur as hypersensitive reaction to certain medications, in such cases termed drug-induced lichenoid reactions. It is also thought to be caused by an anomalous immune reaction aggravated by Hepatitis C viral infection.

On top of the cutaneous eruption, lichen planus involves other parts like the mucous membrane, genitals, nails and the scalp. The classical manifestation is in a form of flat-topped papules or rashes which are shiny and violaceous. There is variation in size from 1 mm to greater than 1 cm in diameter. Wickham striae are regularly found on the papules which appear as fine, white lines.

The mouth is affected in 50% of the cases. Because of mucous membrane involvement, lesions are common on the tongue and in the buccal mucosa. These oral lesions are distinguished by painless gray or white streaks which outline a fern-like pattern on the violaceous skin. There are as well quite painful and persistent ulcers and scattered redness and shedding of the gums.

10% of lichen planus cases involve one or more nails. Affected nail plates are likely to be thin and could become grooved and uneven. There may be onycholysis wherein the nails grow dark, thicken and separate from the nail bed. The nails may drop, cease growing and may vanish completely.

The disease is self-limited and typically resolves in 8 to 12 months so the treatment is not always essential. If pruritus is worse, the physician may suggest an antihistamine. In mild cases of lichen planus, fluorinated topical steroids are used. A thin film should be rubbed accurately once a day and is terminated when the lesions have flattened. If the mouth is involved, steroid paste may be easier to apply. If the genitals are affected, hydrocortisone foam is prescribed. More intensive therapy involving systemic steroids like prednisone is needed to treat severe cases particularly those with mucous membrane involvement.

No responses yet

Herpes Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Herpes?

Herpes simplex is a sexually transmitted viral disease caused either by Herpes simplex virus type and type 2. The categorization into various distinct disorders is based on the site of viral infection.

The virus rotates between episodes of active disease where blisters holding the infectious virus particles appear persisting for about 2 to 21 days. The first period of this disease is typically worse than recurrences that appear in a while. The principal clinical manifestation of herpes is an attack of painful, irritating lesions on and around the reproductive organs or on or by the lips.

This is followed by a remission phase. Subsequent to the preliminary infection, the herpes viruses move all along the path to the ganglion where they become dormant and exist there for lifetime. Individuals can expect an outbreak if a tingling sensation is felt. During this time, they are acutely contagious even if the skin looks natural. Classically, the sores entirely heal but resurface at some time in the future when least anticipated. The reasons as to why the infection recurs are indefinite while a few possible triggers have been recognized together with the use of immunosuppressant medications, excessive sunlight exposure, hyperthermia, stress, acute illness, and weakened immune system.

The virus is easily transmitted by skin-to-skin contact with an active lesion or even with visibly normal skin but is shedding virus, kissing, or body secretions of an infected person. When the blisters have dried up and crusted over, the danger of infectivity is drastically lessened. To infect an individual, the virus penetrates through small breaks or even microscopic injury in the skin or mucous membrane sufficient enough to allow viral entry.

The most dependable technique to avoid the risk of herpes spread is by means of barrier protection. Limiting the number of sexual partners into one is another move toward prevention knowing that the chances of getting infected rises with the number of sexual partners an individual has.

No responses yet