Cold Sores Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Cold Sores?

Medically known as orolabial herpes, fever blisters or cold sores are tiny, painful, erythematous-based clusters of grouped vesicles that come out on the lips that are caused by a herpes simplex virus (HSV-1). The herpes simplex virus can easily penetrate the body via cracks in the skin around the mouth. The virus can be transmitted through sharing of eating utensils, kissing and touching the affected individual’s saliva.

A premonitory symptom of a tingling and burning pain heralds the appearance of the fluid-filled blisters by up to a day. They are typically limited to the mouth area, but they can still occur on the nose, chin and cheeks. After the sores emerge, they typically burst open leading to a clear fluid leakage. After it becomes dry, it crust over and fades away after two weeks at most. Some individuals may carry the herpes virus but they don’t get the condition.

Prevention is the best way to keep away from getting the viral infection. Avoid sharing eating utensils, drinking cups or any other personal items to any person. Avoid being exposed to body fluids of an infected individual.

Orolabial herpes usually heal on their own just within several days. Be cautious not to use topical creams with steroids as they exacerbate manifestations. There are more than a few medications available that can reduce the period or symptoms of fever blisters. Treatment options include topical Acyclovir creams, ointments and other prescription-strength topical antiviral medications.

No responses yet

Candidiasis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Candidiasis?

Candidiasis, also known as moniliasis, is a fungal inflammatory reaction caused by Candida fungi. Infection occurs when the fungus penetrates the tissue, colonize, and release toxins that trigger an acute inflammatory response. The most commonly affected areas are mouth, esophagus, skin, and other moist areas of the skin.

Under normal conditions, the yeast known as Candida is a normal part of microflora existing on the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract, mouth and in the female’s reproductive organ. Any change in the body or in the environment that would permit the yeast to suddenly proliferate can lead to candidiasis. The most common situation is the continued use of broad-spectrum antibiotics. Harmless bacteria, in addition to a small amount of the fungus Candida albicans, are living to compete with the fungus, thus keeping them under control. With the use of antibiotics, the number of bacteria is diminished while the fungus multiplies without restriction and begins to cause symptoms. Other underlying factors that are present in a susceptible individual are escalating blood glucose level, and weakened immune system, radiation and corticosteroid therapy.

The clinical manifestations seen in the female reproductive organ include itching on the private organs, thick, white, odorless discharge, and difficulty during urination and sexual intercourse.

If the mouth is involved, the infection can cause a creamy or bluish-white discharge on the tongue and mouth, which causes sore throat.

Itch red rash with flaky patches are observable on the skin surface. In serious cases, the infection can produce chills, hyperthermia and severe body malaise.

The first goal of treatment is to improve any underlying disorder that has activated the onset of candidiasis. The other collaborative actions are pharmacologic. Antifungal agents in the form of creams, ointment, oral gels, and oral solutions are prescribed for superficial candidiasis. Clotrimazole is prescribed for mucous membrane infections and amphotericin B for systemic infection.

No responses yet

Keratosis Pilaris Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Keratosis Pilaris?

Keratosis pilaris is an autosomal dominant, genetic disorder of keratinization of hair follicles. Also termed as follicular karatosis, this is an extremely common benign condition that is manifested by the appearance of small, uneven folliculocentric keratotic bumps on the skin, often portrayed as chicken skin. Upon gross examination, it appears primarily on the back and the outer portions of the upper arms, facial cheeks, thighs and buttocks.

Globally, it affects more or less 40% of the adult population, and an estimated 50% to 80% of the adolescents.

This condition transpires once the human body produces too much natural protein called keratin. The undue protein which is cream colored, contains and entraps the hair follicles in the pore leading to the formation of hard plugs. The hard plugs inhibit the hair from exiting and reaching the surface, so it grows continuously being encapsulated inside the follicle and beneath the keratin debris. Rubbing the affected area will expose the coiled hair in a few instances. This condition endures only cosmetic consequences as it comes out as a proliferation of tiny hard lumps that are completely harmless. The disorder manifests as a diffused, irregular rash made of ten to 100, very small red bumps. When touched, the affected area seems to be like that of sandpaper in texture.

No cure or universally effective management is on hand. However there are a number of palliative treatment selections and skin care measures which need to be continuous. The effectiveness of the treatment recipe is absolutely associated to the person’s consistency. Bear in mind that these treatment options can only afford to give good temporary results. Some of these measures to avoid unwarranted skin dryness include the use of mild soap-less cleansers once or twice a day and regular skin lubrication. Other treatment methods for Keratosis Pilaris consist of topical exfoliants, topical corticosteroids and topical retinoids.

No responses yet

Hidradenitis Suppurativa Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Hidradenitis Suppurativa?

Hidradenitis Suppurativa is a rare chronic inflammatory skin condition described by engorged, painful, inflamed lesions which can be the same in size with a pimple or as large as golf balls in the armpit, groin and other areas where apocrine glands are concentrated. The disease is an infection of the cutaneous apocrine glands which may extend to adjacent subcutaneous tissues and fascia.

There isn’t much in-depth study made about Hidradenitis Suppurativa. It is an orphan illness as it is considered to be very rare that no pharmaceutical companies would dare to engage in a challenge to obtain a reasonable cure. What we know is that it believed to arise when the apocrine gland channels become obstructed by excessive perspiration. The secretions are confined in the glands forcing sweat and bacteria into the surrounding tissues leading to subcutaneous inflammation and bacterial infection.

The patient with this non-contagious condition displays groups of unremitting abscesses, sebaceous cyst and multiple localized infections that are considerably painful which culminates in incision and pus drainage often leaving an open wound that will not heal. As suppuration advances, immediate cellulitis may exist. When the multiple nodules have come together, they become bordered by fibrotic reactions which result in an unsightly appearance of a scarred area.

Usually, the initial treatments include oral and topical antibiotics in addition to anti-inflammatory pills, systemic steroids, retinoids, birth control pills and the use of intra-lesional injections to reduce swelling. Strictly avoid wearing fitting clothing and shaving the affected area. The areas should be washed daily using an antibacterial soap. If severe, aggressive surgery, radiotherapy and incision and draining are recommended.

No responses yet

Acne Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Acne?

Acne is a skin condition characterized by minor, although infrequently serious, skin eruptions due to inflammation around the sebaceous glands. It is most prominent on the face, chest, arms and back. Roughly about 85% of all people have acne outbreaks in some point in their lives.

Normally, the sebaceous glands produce a fatty, oily substance known as sebum, to protect and lubricate the skin. Acne results when the sebum flow is obstructed by dead skin cells, dried sebum or by bacteria. When there is a complete blockage, whitehead is produced. When the blockage is incomplete, blackhead results. In time, the clogged hair follicle enlarges, producing a bump. The follicles continue to enlarge until the walls rupture, permitting the normal skin bacteria to enter into the deeper layer of the skin. This will result to an inflammation. If the inflammation is close to the surface, this is termed as pustule, pimple for deeper inflammation and much deeper is called cyst.

Remove excess oil by regular gentle washing of the face with non-irritating unscented soaps. However, avoid vigorous washing and scrubbing as these may irritate the skin, making the acne worse. The use of over-the-counter preparations and topical solutions with benzoyl peroxide improves acne. If the acne is severe, dermatologists may prescribe topical and oral antibiotics. If the patient has drug-resistance to antibiotics, Accutane may be used as a substitute. If acne is fully managed, scars can be dealt with resurfacing derma procedure called dermabrasion. Except in severe cases where the skin eruption is widespread, normally acne is undisruptive and responds well to treatment.

No responses yet

Dermatitis Herpetiformis Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Dermatitis Herpetiformis?

Dermatitis Herpetiformis, otherwise known as Duhring’s disease, is a chronic autoimmune blistering dermatological condition characterized by clustered excoriations, urticaria and vesicles located on the elbows, knees, back and buttocks. As the name suggests, the inflammation is similar to herpes, but it is not related to herpes virus. It was Dr. Louis Duhring who originally described the disease in the year 1884 at the University of Pennsylvania.

The papulovesicular eruptions are intensely itchy and chronic distributed symmetrically on extensor surfaces. This condition also involves the appearance of a rash. The rash results when gluten joins with IgA, both enter the bloodstream and circulates in the system and finally, gluten and IgA clog up the small blood vessels in the skin. This will draw neutrophils and release chemicals which really produce the rash. At first, the person will notice a slight pigmentation at the site where the lesions come out. Then later it will become vesicles that occur in groups.

Dermatitis herpetiformis responds well to Dapsone. For most patients, this drug is an effective treatment that will improve the disease in just a few days. It responds so quickly that itching is significantly reduced in two to three days. However, when the damage has reached the gastrointestinal tract, this pharmacological treatment has no effect.

To help control the disease, a strict gluten-free diet should be observed as lifetime management. This modification can radically decrease related intestinal damage and other complications.

No responses yet

Erythema Multiforme Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Erythema multiforme?

Erythema multiforme is a common dermatological condition of idiopathic origin, potentially mediated by the accumulation of immune complex in the microvasculature surface of the skin and mucosa. It is a severe, self-limiting inflammatory skin condition under type IV hypersensitivity reaction triggered by the exposure to certain medications, contagion and other factors. In general, it affects the young population.

Symptoms

Erythema multiforme minor

Of the two types, EM minor is the less serious and accounts for 80% of Erythema multiforme cases. The rash comes out over a few days somewhat expanding to around 2 cm. but in some patients more than a few crops go after each other in single attack. Slight burning or mild itch may be existing but becomes most intense over the back of the hands and feet. Classically, the rash appears as bull’s eye shaped circles on the palms arranged symmetrically and lasts for 7 to 14 days and then resolves leaving a remaining brown colored discoloration. There is an involvement of the oral mucosa for 70% of the cases. Oral lesions in the lips, palate, and gums are common. The eyes are affected. There are red conjunctivae and eye swelling and excessive tearing. There are also excruciating erosions on the genitals.

Stevens Johnson syndrome

In this situation, there is larger injury. Together with the erythematous eruption, there are a few significant hemorrhagic blisters present. There are extensive blood blisters predominant on the torso and face.

Causes

The Pathophysiology of Erythema multiforme is not yet fully implicated but it appears that there is a taking part of the cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction by the immune system that can be elicited by variety of stimuli, specifically bacteria, viruses and chemicals.

As revealed in a current global future analysis, the most important cause of Erythema multiforme is Herpes simplex virus, but bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections are also correlated. In the case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, it looks to play a smaller role. Drugs were found to be a more universal trigger for these cases. For Erythema Multiforme minor and major, the principal risk factor is history of herpes infection or recurrent case of herpes.

Treatment

The treatment starts with identifying the activating factor and removing it, however, this is not all the time achievable. If drug is the culprit, it must be discontinued as soon as possible. If the cause is infection, it must then be properly treated following the performance of diagnostic tests.

Erythema multiforme minor is typically without a clinical symptom therefore requires no treatment, as the lesions are self-limiting and will disappear within a month. If EM minor is herpes virus induced, Zovirax is useful.

Mild cases of Erythema multiforme require only symptomatic management. Give analgesics as needed, skin care; topical steroids, and soothing mouthwash and gargles. Aggressive observation and fluids and electrolytes replacement are of dominant significance.

No responses yet

Kidney Stones Pictures

Jun 21 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Kidney stones?

Also known as renal calculi, kidney stones are formed by deposition of crystal aggregations from insoluble substances like nitrogenous wastes and calcium compounds in the kidney.

Naturally, these stones leave the body by passage in the urine. Small pieces of stones easily pass through the ureter and out through the urethra when one urinates without causing any symptoms. Larger ones which are about 2-5 mm in diameter may never leave the kidney; sometimes however, it enters the ureter and causes renal colic or an intermittent, severe pain and spasm until the stone reaches the bladder. The pain is caused by the peristaltic contractions as the ureter attempts to expel the obstruction. It is commonly felt in the flank and lower abdomen radiating to the groin lasting for about 20 minutes to 1 hour

The etiology of urinary stone formation is complicated. It encompasses a number of factors, including, low urine volume, hereditary factors, high calcium levels in the blood, diet high in oxalate, urinary tract infections, and excessively acidic urine.

An individual is advised to drink at least 3 liters of water every day to flush the stones into the bladder. Trap the stones when it passes by filtering urine with a piece of gauze or filter so that it can be used for stone analysis. OTC pain relievers taken in moderation are recommended. Doctors may prescribe antispasmodic drugs to relax the ureter muscle during passage of stones. They may also prescribe potassium citrate to decrease urine acidity.

With a procedure called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, larger stones can be crushed via condensed bursts of sound waves. Dietary modification is advised to prevent reappearance of stones. Avoid sodium, foods rich in oxalate, and animal protein. In extremely rare cases where patient does not respond well to treatment options, a surgical operation is required to take away the kidney.

No responses yet

Boils Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is a boil?

Also termed as a furuncle, a boil is a deep-seated infection of the hair follicle which is generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It is a confined dermatological infection that commonly begins as a painful, reddened, inflamed area. After a while, the mottled area becomes firm, rigid, and tender. The white or yellow point at the midpoint of the boil softens and becomes filled with pus. In groups, they are called as carbuncles. Individual may as well develop hyperthermia, swollen lymph nodes, and body weakness.

There are several causes of boil formation. It can be brought by an ingrown hair. The bacterial colonization starts in the hair follicles and produces a localized inflammation. In the case of acne, the reason is the plugged sweat glands becoming infected. The skin forms as a line of defense against materials and pathogens foreign to the body. Any break in the integrity of the skin can become an pustule should it get infected with bacteria. People who have diabetes, nutritional deficiencies, poor sanitation, chemical exposure and those who are immunosuppressed are greatly susceptible to skin infections.

Proper hygiene practices and the frequent use of antibacterial soaps help stop bacteria from accumulating on the skin surface. These measures trim down the odds for the hair follicles to get contaminated.

Opposite to the conventional idea, boils need not to be drained in order to heal; as a matter of fact, opening the infected area can initiate further infections. Never squeeze or lance the boil with needle without the supervision of a doctor because it may just worsen the condition. Heat application is the principal treatment for most boils. Heat application typically with hot soaks enhances blood circulation to the involved area and permits the body to better combat the infection by carrying antibodies and WBCs to the site of infection. Antibiotics are not needed in all situations. They may be recommended by the doctor if there is severe infection after determining the type of bacteria through culture and sensitivity.

No responses yet

Impetigo Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Impetigo?

Impetigo is a common, superficial, extremely infectious bacterial infection of the skin generally caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, staphylococcus aureus or by multiple bacteria.

The mode of transmission is via direct contact with lesions and with nasal carriers. Dried streptococci suspended in the air are not transmittable to the intact skin. The period of incubation is 1 to 3 days. It is very contagious and infection may spread from one body area to other exposed areas of the body and may infect other people sharing with them their clothing, linen, towels, combs and other personal belongings soiled with exudates.

At first, the lesions appear as small, red pustules which quickly become isolated, thin-walled vesicles which will soon rupture leaving a denuded area that discharges a honey-like serous liquid. After it hardens on the skin surface, they become covered with stuck-on golden yellow crusts. Removing the crust will expose the smooth, red, moist surface on which new crust will form again.

There are two categories of impetigo namely bullous impetigo and non-bullous impetigo. Bullous impetigo involves larger fluid-containing vesicles that is clear at first and then becomes hazy. The most widespread type of impetigo is the non-bullous. In reverse to bullous impetigo, the blisters in non-bullous are tiny. These blisters will burst open in the end leaving a raw patch of red skin that suppurates fluid. Steadily, a honey-yellow coating coats the area.

Frequent hand washing and other good hygiene measures can facilitate prevention. Take baths regularly and clean the skin with mild soap and water. Prevent spreading the infection among members of the family by using a separate towel. Separate the infected individual’s personal belongings and wash the items in hot water. Other members who are not infected should pay special care to areas of the skin with impaired integrity and keep it clean and protected from getting infected. Persons who have impetigo are advised to stay indoors for a few days.

If the affected area is extensive and there is a concern about complications, then systemic antibiotic therapy is the usual treatment. Oral penicillin may be prescribed to patients with nonbullous impetigo. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins are recommended to patients who have bullous impetigo. If the patient has previous allergic reaction to penicillin, erythromycin is a useful substitute. If the disease is just limited to a small area, a topical antibiotic may be prescribed. An alternative to topical antibiotics is hydrogen peroxide.

No responses yet

Shingles Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Shingles?

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles is a highly contagious disease attributable to the reactivation of the dormant human herpes virus type 3 virus situated in the dorsal nerve root ganglion of the spinal nerves. The virus can migrate along the path of a nerve to the skin surface causing a rash of painful blisters. This disorder affects only those who once have had chicken pox and commonly hits over age 50. In a client with a history of chickenpox, shingles can occur at some immunocompromised situations. Prognosis is good except when the virus extends to central nervous system.

It is still undefined how and why reactivation happens. It is assumed that the virus reactivates when, as a result of old age, illness, cancer, stress or immunosuppressant medications, the immune system turns out to be too vulnerable to keep the virus in a state of dormancy. After viral reactivation, the chicken pox virus travels down the sensory nerve into the skin to cause shingles.

In early stages, there is a tingling, itching, lightning bolt sensation followed by pain on one side of the body. One to three days after the pain starts, a rash with raised, red lumps and blisters erupts on the skin surface following a dermatomal outline or a ray-like distribution as blisters follow the pathway of individual nerves. They start to become pustules, and then scabs form by 10 days.

Separate the infected person from others because exudates from the lesions hold the virus. Maintain standard precautions. Use an air mattress on the bed and keep the atmosphere cool. Never scratch the skin where the rash is located to avoid the risk of secondary infections and scarring. To soothe the blisters, render cool water compress to suppurating blisters for 20 minutes many times a day. In the early stage of the disease, antiviral drugs may be combined with a strong corticosteroid to speed up healing and diminish the extent of pain. In the most critical situations, blocking agents are given via injection to stop pain signals from reaching the brain.

No responses yet

Eczema Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Eczema?

Eczema is a general term used for common inflammatory dermatological conditions. The most constant features of eczema which are associated to significant amounts of histamine on the skin are pruritus and hyperirritability. Because of the alteration in the lipid content, sebaceous gland activity and sweating, too much dryness with consequential itching develops. This leads to crusting, flaking, cracking and bleeding of the skin. In reaction to skin rubbing, instant redness comes out on the skin. Scratching exposes a healing lesion which may increase the rash. Over time, burning cracks become visible.

The common classifications of eczema are atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, xerotic eczema and seborrheic dermatitis. Atopic eczema is an allergic disease with a hereditary element. Contact dermatitis is a cell-mediated skin sensitivity which results from a direct exosure with a chemical or allergen. A very common skin disorder among the older population is xerotic eczema where the skin becomes so dehydrated it turns into eczema. This type of eczema gets worse in dry winter conditions. Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin condition directly related to dandruff. There is dry and oily flaking in the scalp, face and eyebrows.

Eczema can be genetically inherited but still there is no exact cause but a defect of the skin weakens its role as a barrier. Some people have more than one gene defect leading to abnormalities in proteins which are known to be essential in maintaining skin integrity. Some forms of eczema can be triggered by environmental allergens direct contact with irritants, temperature, humidity, and psychological stress.

The course of action for the treatment of eczema includes decreasing irritation and scratching, lubricating the skin and preventing secondary infections. Individuals should stay away from allergenic substances such as harsh soaps and detergents. Scratching the affected area must be avoided since it will just worsen the condition ang may spread the irritation. Keep the fingernails short and clean. To prevent it from being scratched, it is effective to cover the area with clothing or sterile bandage. If exposed to allergenic substances, immediate washing of the exposed area with soap ang running water can remove the irritating chemical. To soothe the skin, intermittently apply wet compresses for short periods. OTC corticosteroid creams and oral antihistamines can help to relieve the intense itching. If secondary bacterial infection develops, antibiotics may well be needed.

No responses yet

Scalp Psoriasis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Scalp Psoriasis?

A subtype of psoriasis noticeable on the hair protected area of the head is scalp psoriasis. The extent can be mild or serious depending on the scaliness and inflammation and could be isolated or generalized. It can affect a certain area, and worse, the whole scalp. The most commonly affected parts are the areas behind the ears and the occipital area.

The usual presenting clinical manifestations are obvious, thick, crusted, silvery sheets of dead skin cells called plaques with well-defined borders, scalp discomfort caused by the red patches, bleeding in severe cases and a lot of scratching. It worsens when the area is constantly scratched. Even supposing it is sufficiently masked by the hair, like in dandruff; it causes shedding of the skin and can really be socially embarrassing. Patients, who have problems with the immune system, trauma, stress and hormonal changes, are much more susceptible.

The principal goal of treatment is loosening and removing the scales while providing liberal moisture as possible. The management for the itchy and flaky scalp depends upon the seriousness of the scalp psoriasis and the degree of involvement. Expose the body to sunlight as Vitamin D is activated and helps enhance skin condition. Coal tar shampoos are effective too. Massaging the scalp with aloe vera and lavender oil works wonders. Choose a shampoo with jojoba oil on it as this help moisturize the dry scalp. In mild scalp psoriasis, there is only superficial scaling. To treat this, the primary action is the use of ketoconazole shampoo followed by betamethasone valerate scalp solution. Bear in mind to apply Alcohol-based topical steroids intermittently because overuse leads to more extensive scalp psoriasis. If inflammation is negative, steroidal application can be substituted with calcipotriol lotion. In severe scalp psoriasis with thick adherent peeling plaques, the first measure is to remove the scales. If these scales are not eliminated, the antipsoriatic medication will not effectively act on the skin.

No responses yet

Contact Dermatitis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis is a medical term for skin inflammation that results from exposure of the skin to an external chemical or physical substance, which can be an irritant or an allergen.

About 80% of the cases of contact dermatitis are caused by irritants. The inflammatory reaction is attributable to the direct effect of irritant substances like soaps, plants, solvent, latex, cosmetics, food, and detergents on the skin.

The remaining 20% of the cases are accounted to allergic contact dermatitis which is also the most prevalent type of immunotoxicity. In this case, the skin inflammation is caused by a hypersensitivity reaction acting via the interaction of the immune system’s immunoregulatory cytokines and T lymphocyte subpopulations to a specific substance. It begins with the chemical breaking through the skin. It binds to Langerhans’ cells and travel to lymph glands close by. Sensitization ends when the allergen has been introduced to T-lymphocytes which will produce memory cells to remember that specific allergen. A previous exposure to the substance is needed to provoke allergy. Succeeding exposure causes the T-lymphocytes to recognize the allergen and activates them, releasing inflammatory mediators to the site.

Formaldehyde, rubber, fragrances, nickel, topical medications, hair salon chemicals and some plants are the commonest allergens. In this case, there is a delay of the immune response between the first exposure and the consequent reaction.

Another difference between the two types of dermatitis is the extent of inflammation as manifested in the skin surface. Usually, allergic dermatitis is confined to an area where the trigger was actually in contact with the skin while in irritant, the skin inflammation is more widespread.

The common reaction is a red rash which appears immediately in irritant contact dermatitis while the rash brought by allergic contact dermatitis every so often emerges until 1 to 3 days following an allergen contact. Urticaria appears in a pattern where the skin was directly exposed to a trigger and worsens when the area is scratched.

To discard and inactivate most of the displeasing substance, clean the exposed skin with soap and cool water straight away after direct contact to an identified trigger. Lemon juice and vinegar which are weak acids can be applied to neutralize the effects of the chemical substances. Cold moist compresses are done for 30 minutes thrice a day if there is development of blisters. Aside from application of calamine lotion and cool colloidal baths, Diphenhydramine can be taken to relieve itching.

No responses yet