Seborrheic Dermatitis Pictures

Jun 29 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis, otherwise known as seborrheic eczema is a common inflammatory skin disorder characterized by scaly, flaky, itchy red skin and persistent dandruff patterned especially on sebum-gland rich areas.

Seborrheic dermatitis is thought to be due to the contribution of yeast Malassezia, to the abnormal immune response. The yeast hydrolyzes sebum and releases toxic substances that cause skin irritation and inflammation.

Other causes include environmental changes, stress, genetics, Vitamin A, pyridoxine and riboflavin deficiencies, medications, hormonal imbalance, and abnormal immune response.

The clinical manifestations come out steadily, with dandruff as the usual first sign. It may occur on the scalp, face and on areas where skin folds, with areas becoming red, itchy and flaky.

Seborrheic dermatitis in infants is termed as cradle cap. It is not dangerous and is just a temporary condition. It comes out as thick, crusty, yellow scales over the infant’s scalp. When it happens in infants, the disorder will resolve itself within days and without any treatment.

Once you get this skin condition, it is likely to become persistent and there are no measures to stop it permanently. But there are a number of treatment options to control the symptoms. Applying medicated creams and lotions to the affected body areas is the mainstay measure. Topical corticosteroid is only for short-term use because of rebound effect which may promote dependence. Frequent shampooing ang longer periods of lathering can reduce dandruff.

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Baby Acne Pictures

Jun 26 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Baby Acne?

Infants may be born with or will develop rashes and red bumps on their face. This is a very common infant condition called baby acne. This is an impermanent normal skin condition that maybe present already even from birth, although it usually comes out when the newborn is 3 to 4 weeks old until 6 months of age. It is more common in male infants.

Commonly, baby acne is attributable to the hormonal changes that occurred during pregnancy and not an indication of a hormonal problem. The maternal hormones cross the placenta and stimulate the newborn’s oil glands, in the end, giving rise to this condition.

Predominantly the pustules appear on the cheeks, chin and forehead. Baby acne is at its height when there is skin irritation, or during times when the infant is hot or fussy. When the skin becomes damp from spit-ups, saliva, milk and harsh detergents, the condition may become visibly worse for quite a few days.

Unless the condition is caused by a causal disease, in general no treatment is needed. It is better to leave it as it is. It will fade away in a few short weeks. Attempting to render topical preparations and brisk washing could only irritate their sensitive skin. Acne medications are very rarely given that these drugs are hard on the infant’s delicate skin. Baby oils and lotions won’t help and using these may only worsen the condition. Then again, using a gentle cleanser to cleanse the face once a day might help.

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Acne Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Acne?

Acne is a skin condition characterized by minor, although infrequently serious, skin eruptions due to inflammation around the sebaceous glands. It is most prominent on the face, chest, arms and back. Roughly about 85% of all people have acne outbreaks in some point in their lives.

Normally, the sebaceous glands produce a fatty, oily substance known as sebum, to protect and lubricate the skin. Acne results when the sebum flow is obstructed by dead skin cells, dried sebum or by bacteria. When there is a complete blockage, whitehead is produced. When the blockage is incomplete, blackhead results. In time, the clogged hair follicle enlarges, producing a bump. The follicles continue to enlarge until the walls rupture, permitting the normal skin bacteria to enter into the deeper layer of the skin. This will result to an inflammation. If the inflammation is close to the surface, this is termed as pustule, pimple for deeper inflammation and much deeper is called cyst.

Remove excess oil by regular gentle washing of the face with non-irritating unscented soaps. However, avoid vigorous washing and scrubbing as these may irritate the skin, making the acne worse. The use of over-the-counter preparations and topical solutions with benzoyl peroxide improves acne. If the acne is severe, dermatologists may prescribe topical and oral antibiotics. If the patient has drug-resistance to antibiotics, Accutane may be used as a substitute. If acne is fully managed, scars can be dealt with resurfacing derma procedure called dermabrasion. Except in severe cases where the skin eruption is widespread, normally acne is undisruptive and responds well to treatment.

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Scabies Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Scabies?

Conversationally established as the seven-year itch, Scabies is a highly communicable skin infection described by the eruptive lesions created from the skin excavations of the female itch mites called Sarcoptes scabiei. These eight-legged parasites are microscopic measuring around 0.33 to 0.45 mm but at times they are detectable as white pinpoints so a magnifying glass is of use. The parasite burrows underneath the epidermis to lay eggs and initiates an intense allergic irritation.

Scabies Causes

Any person can develop infection or re-infection since it is easily spread most often by prolonged, direct physical contact with infected individuals. The disease may also be transmitted from inanimate objects or by sexual contact. The time-span needed for the female itch mite to burrow on infected skin and lay eggs is within a day from the initial contact with the infected individual.

Scabies Symptoms

The clinical manifestations involve intense and unrelenting itchiness which becomes worse at night and after a hot shower. There are also superficial burrows which are often linear or s-shaped and come out as tiny, wavy, flushed, grayish or dark outlines on the skin surface, especially on the folds under the arms, around the wrists and between the fingers, and other moist areas. When larger areas of the body are involved and secondary infection is serious, hyperthermia, headache and body weakness will occur.

Scabies Treatment

This infection is more frequently observed in congested vicinities with insanitary living situations. It is a sign of poor hygiene. Care must be observed regarding effective preventive measures including good personal hygiene, regular changing of clean clothing, beddings and towels, exposing the linens used under the sun, washing used linens in hot water, general house cleaning and improving the sanitation of the environment. Stuffed toys can be wrapped up in a plastic bag for three days because the parasites cannot live on for too long being away from host’s skin. All rooms in the residence have got to be vacuumed and the bag should then be destroyed.

The medical management includes assessing the whole family of the infected individual before assuming any treatment, for as long as one member stays infected, others will potentially get the disease. Dermatologists treat this infection by recommending a medicated lotion to destroy the itch mites. People are instructed to apply permethrin cream from the neck down and let it remain on the skin during the night before it is washed off. This cream application is regularly repeated in a week. Benzyl benzoate emulsion and Kwell ointment are effective but should be limitedly applied entirely to the skin.

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Impetigo Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Impetigo?

Impetigo is a common, superficial, extremely infectious bacterial infection of the skin generally caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, staphylococcus aureus or by multiple bacteria.

The mode of transmission is via direct contact with lesions and with nasal carriers. Dried streptococci suspended in the air are not transmittable to the intact skin. The period of incubation is 1 to 3 days. It is very contagious and infection may spread from one body area to other exposed areas of the body and may infect other people sharing with them their clothing, linen, towels, combs and other personal belongings soiled with exudates.

At first, the lesions appear as small, red pustules which quickly become isolated, thin-walled vesicles which will soon rupture leaving a denuded area that discharges a honey-like serous liquid. After it hardens on the skin surface, they become covered with stuck-on golden yellow crusts. Removing the crust will expose the smooth, red, moist surface on which new crust will form again.

There are two categories of impetigo namely bullous impetigo and non-bullous impetigo. Bullous impetigo involves larger fluid-containing vesicles that is clear at first and then becomes hazy. The most widespread type of impetigo is the non-bullous. In reverse to bullous impetigo, the blisters in non-bullous are tiny. These blisters will burst open in the end leaving a raw patch of red skin that suppurates fluid. Steadily, a honey-yellow coating coats the area.

Frequent hand washing and other good hygiene measures can facilitate prevention. Take baths regularly and clean the skin with mild soap and water. Prevent spreading the infection among members of the family by using a separate towel. Separate the infected individual’s personal belongings and wash the items in hot water. Other members who are not infected should pay special care to areas of the skin with impaired integrity and keep it clean and protected from getting infected. Persons who have impetigo are advised to stay indoors for a few days.

If the affected area is extensive and there is a concern about complications, then systemic antibiotic therapy is the usual treatment. Oral penicillin may be prescribed to patients with nonbullous impetigo. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins are recommended to patients who have bullous impetigo. If the patient has previous allergic reaction to penicillin, erythromycin is a useful substitute. If the disease is just limited to a small area, a topical antibiotic may be prescribed. An alternative to topical antibiotics is hydrogen peroxide.

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Hives Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Hives?

Hives are common skin disorders characterized by edematous plaques with severe itching. Classically, it appears as pallid red, raised, itchy bumps. Each hive remains for a few minutes to several hours before disappearing. For hours or days, clusters of these lesions may come, go, and return episodically. It can be acute when it persists less than six weeks or chronic when the sequence continues longer than six weeks. Acute urticaria accounts for the majority of the cases. Chronic urticaria is idiopathic in nature, rarely caused by an allergic reaction.

In urticaria, whether the activator is allergic or non-allergic, a complex release of inflammatory mediators is involved. One of the chemicals released from the cutaneous mast cells during the process is histamine, which causes escape of fluid from the superficial blood vessels.

Urticaria begins as red circular rashes and soon become pale and edematous which comes with an intense itching and burning sensation. Characteristically, hives rapidly change in size, moving anywhere from one are to another, disappearing and reappearing in matters of hours.

In the environment, numerous substances can cause hives including: medications, food, and physical agents which are aquagenic, stress-related, cholinergic, dermatographic, adrenergic, parasitic or temperamental.

Early identification and avoidance of the allergic triggers are the best ways to prevent another urticaria attack. If exposed to a trigger, have a preventive dose of antihistamine to inhibit hives from developing. Diphenhydramine is considered most effective non-sedating antihistamine. If the urticaria is severe, oral corticosteroids are given for short time only. Starch and colloid-type baths are used as comfort measures. In patients who experience angioedema of the respiratory tract, the doctor may counsel to bring a prescription of epinephrine.

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Contact Dermatitis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Contact Dermatitis?

Contact dermatitis is a medical term for skin inflammation that results from exposure of the skin to an external chemical or physical substance, which can be an irritant or an allergen.

About 80% of the cases of contact dermatitis are caused by irritants. The inflammatory reaction is attributable to the direct effect of irritant substances like soaps, plants, solvent, latex, cosmetics, food, and detergents on the skin.

The remaining 20% of the cases are accounted to allergic contact dermatitis which is also the most prevalent type of immunotoxicity. In this case, the skin inflammation is caused by a hypersensitivity reaction acting via the interaction of the immune system’s immunoregulatory cytokines and T lymphocyte subpopulations to a specific substance. It begins with the chemical breaking through the skin. It binds to Langerhans’ cells and travel to lymph glands close by. Sensitization ends when the allergen has been introduced to T-lymphocytes which will produce memory cells to remember that specific allergen. A previous exposure to the substance is needed to provoke allergy. Succeeding exposure causes the T-lymphocytes to recognize the allergen and activates them, releasing inflammatory mediators to the site.

Formaldehyde, rubber, fragrances, nickel, topical medications, hair salon chemicals and some plants are the commonest allergens. In this case, there is a delay of the immune response between the first exposure and the consequent reaction.

Another difference between the two types of dermatitis is the extent of inflammation as manifested in the skin surface. Usually, allergic dermatitis is confined to an area where the trigger was actually in contact with the skin while in irritant, the skin inflammation is more widespread.

The common reaction is a red rash which appears immediately in irritant contact dermatitis while the rash brought by allergic contact dermatitis every so often emerges until 1 to 3 days following an allergen contact. Urticaria appears in a pattern where the skin was directly exposed to a trigger and worsens when the area is scratched.

To discard and inactivate most of the displeasing substance, clean the exposed skin with soap and cool water straight away after direct contact to an identified trigger. Lemon juice and vinegar which are weak acids can be applied to neutralize the effects of the chemical substances. Cold moist compresses are done for 30 minutes thrice a day if there is development of blisters. Aside from application of calamine lotion and cool colloidal baths, Diphenhydramine can be taken to relieve itching.

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