Archive for the 'Uncategorized' Category

Erythema Multiforme Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Erythema multiforme?

Erythema multiforme is a common dermatological condition of idiopathic origin, potentially mediated by the accumulation of immune complex in the microvasculature surface of the skin and mucosa. It is a severe, self-limiting inflammatory skin condition under type IV hypersensitivity reaction triggered by the exposure to certain medications, contagion and other factors. In general, it affects the young population.

Symptoms

Erythema multiforme minor

Of the two types, EM minor is the less serious and accounts for 80% of Erythema multiforme cases. The rash comes out over a few days somewhat expanding to around 2 cm. but in some patients more than a few crops go after each other in single attack. Slight burning or mild itch may be existing but becomes most intense over the back of the hands and feet. Classically, the rash appears as bull’s eye shaped circles on the palms arranged symmetrically and lasts for 7 to 14 days and then resolves leaving a remaining brown colored discoloration. There is an involvement of the oral mucosa for 70% of the cases. Oral lesions in the lips, palate, and gums are common. The eyes are affected. There are red conjunctivae and eye swelling and excessive tearing. There are also excruciating erosions on the genitals.

Stevens Johnson syndrome

In this situation, there is larger injury. Together with the erythematous eruption, there are a few significant hemorrhagic blisters present. There are extensive blood blisters predominant on the torso and face.

Causes

The Pathophysiology of Erythema multiforme is not yet fully implicated but it appears that there is a taking part of the cell-mediated hypersensitivity reaction by the immune system that can be elicited by variety of stimuli, specifically bacteria, viruses and chemicals.

As revealed in a current global future analysis, the most important cause of Erythema multiforme is Herpes simplex virus, but bacterial, parasitic and fungal infections are also correlated. In the case of Stevens-Johnson syndrome and toxic epidermal necrolysis, it looks to play a smaller role. Drugs were found to be a more universal trigger for these cases. For Erythema Multiforme minor and major, the principal risk factor is history of herpes infection or recurrent case of herpes.

Treatment

The treatment starts with identifying the activating factor and removing it, however, this is not all the time achievable. If drug is the culprit, it must be discontinued as soon as possible. If the cause is infection, it must then be properly treated following the performance of diagnostic tests.

Erythema multiforme minor is typically without a clinical symptom therefore requires no treatment, as the lesions are self-limiting and will disappear within a month. If EM minor is herpes virus induced, Zovirax is useful.

Mild cases of Erythema multiforme require only symptomatic management. Give analgesics as needed, skin care; topical steroids, and soothing mouthwash and gargles. Aggressive observation and fluids and electrolytes replacement are of dominant significance.

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Black hairy Tongue Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Black Hairy Tongue?

Black hairy tongue, also termed as lingua villosa nigra, is a frequently observed impermanent condition where the tongue looks hairy and becomes black, pink, white, brown or green or any color depending on the contributory factors. Hairy tongue is more frequent in the male population and the incidence rate differs broadly from 8.3% in children and adults to 57% in persons with drug addiction. The exact cause is not purposely recognized but it is considered that the appearance may be attributable to the increased number of fungi and bacteria that naturally live in the mouth. In this condition, there is an elongation of the filiform papillae on the superficial part of the tongue. At times, the small protuberances grow liberally thicker than normal making it look dark furry. As food enters the mouth, the ends of the papillae will be rubbed away, causing the remains to combine among the finger like projections of the papillae. While this oral condition may appear disturbing, it does not initiate a health problem at all since it resolves without undergoing treatment.

Symptoms

Other than the furry appearance of the tongue, individuals with black tongue may not experience any discomfort or alarming symptoms. But some people may have a tickling-like feeling in the back of the roof especially during swallowing. If there is a large number of Candida albicans in the mouth, people will feel a burning sensation on the tongue. In rare severe circumstance, there is exaggerated gagging reflex and occasionally, bad breath. Some may become nauseated and will have metallic taste.

Causes

Hairy tongue is characterized by lengthening and elongation of papillae with a defective desquamation. On average, these filiform papillae are just about 1 mm in length, in the case of a black tongue; the papillae are more than 15 mm in length.

The exact predisposing factor of black, hairy tongue can’t always be verified. Then again, there are possible causes which consist of the following:

  • The most common cause is the disruption in the normal number of bacteria or yeast in the mouth following antibiotic therapy. Once the medication is discontinued, the tongue returns to normal.
  • Poor oral care leads to build up of bacteria.
  • Dehydration
  • Radiation therapy from head to neck
  • Drinking coffee and tea
  • Mouth breathing
  • Medications such as Pepto-Bismol which contains chemical bismuth
  • Habitual application of astringent agents and mouthwash that contain oxidizing agents like peroxide.
  • Heavy tobacco use can cause tongue discoloration.

Treatment

Although it may come out as very disturbing, black hairy tongue is not a severe health condition. This is commonly undisruptive and can be managed easily with conventional procedures, lifestyle modifications and proper mouth hygiene and avoidance of potential contributory factors.

Oral Care

The management for black hairy tongue is flexible. In most cases, plainly brushing the tongue or utilizing a commercially presented tongue scraper is most satisfactory to get rid of stretched out filiform papillae and delay the development of additional papillae. Use a soft-bristled toothbrush and provide your teeth, mouth and tongue a gentle brushing to remove food fragments, dead cells and microorganisms. Do this at least two times a day, and preferably, every after meal using toothpaste with fluoride content. Correct flossing at least once daily is advised to eliminate particles and plaque sandwiched between teeth.

Surgical Care

When less invasive therapies are confirmed to be unsuccessful, surgical removal of the elongated papillae by electrodesiccation and carbon dioxide laser is the very last option.

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Tick Bite Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Tick bite?

In the United States alone, ticks are considered to be the primary vectors of human diseases. The concern here is not the bite itself but the toxins and microorganisms present in the tick’s saliva transmitted via tick bites.

Ticks are arthropods that feed on the blood of warm-blooded animals. Painlessly, they excavate into the skin with their feeding part, bite, withdraw blood and finally drop off after they become swollen as they are filled with blood.

There are roughly 800 species but only two families of ticks, namely Ixodidae and Argasidae, are identified to spread infections to humans. Ixodidae or the hard ticks possess a tough back plate that defines their appearance. They are likely to attach and feed for hours to several days. On the other hand, Argasidae or the soft ticks have rounded bodies and do not possess a hard back plate. They feed only for less than an hour.

In almost all cases of tick bites, the area bitten by ticks develops usually painless, red rashes. Usually, there is a formation of classic bull’s eye on the skin surface. Classifying theses rashes is a significant problem as it is very similar to skin infection and inflammation. Later, the bite site develops burning, itching and hardly ever, a localized intense pain is experienced. Some individuals may develop shortness of breath and paralysis.

When a tick is spotted in the body, remove it right away to avoid a skin reaction and decrease the odds of getting infected. With a pair of curved forceps, snatch the head of the tick held as near to the skin and pull it straight up. Never squeeze the tick. Pull the head of the tick gently away from the skin until the tick lets go. Put it in a container with a tight-fitting lid for examination. Clean the area of the bite with a rubbing alcohol and afterwards, wash hands with soap and water.

People living in regions where the risk of getting Lyme disease is relatively high, a single dose of doxycycline can prevent the disease if taken in 3 days of a tick bite.

To help decrease pain, itching and inflammation, ice application for about 15 to 20 minutes every hour for as long as necessary is recommended. Doctors may suggest antibiotics, antihistamines, local anesthetics, skin protectants such as calamine and topical corticosteroids.

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Scabies Pictures

Jun 22 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Scabies?

Conversationally established as the seven-year itch, Scabies is a highly communicable skin infection described by the eruptive lesions created from the skin excavations of the female itch mites called Sarcoptes scabiei. These eight-legged parasites are microscopic measuring around 0.33 to 0.45 mm but at times they are detectable as white pinpoints so a magnifying glass is of use. The parasite burrows underneath the epidermis to lay eggs and initiates an intense allergic irritation.

Scabies Causes

Any person can develop infection or re-infection since it is easily spread most often by prolonged, direct physical contact with infected individuals. The disease may also be transmitted from inanimate objects or by sexual contact. The time-span needed for the female itch mite to burrow on infected skin and lay eggs is within a day from the initial contact with the infected individual.

Scabies Symptoms

The clinical manifestations involve intense and unrelenting itchiness which becomes worse at night and after a hot shower. There are also superficial burrows which are often linear or s-shaped and come out as tiny, wavy, flushed, grayish or dark outlines on the skin surface, especially on the folds under the arms, around the wrists and between the fingers, and other moist areas. When larger areas of the body are involved and secondary infection is serious, hyperthermia, headache and body weakness will occur.

Scabies Treatment

This infection is more frequently observed in congested vicinities with insanitary living situations. It is a sign of poor hygiene. Care must be observed regarding effective preventive measures including good personal hygiene, regular changing of clean clothing, beddings and towels, exposing the linens used under the sun, washing used linens in hot water, general house cleaning and improving the sanitation of the environment. Stuffed toys can be wrapped up in a plastic bag for three days because the parasites cannot live on for too long being away from host’s skin. All rooms in the residence have got to be vacuumed and the bag should then be destroyed.

The medical management includes assessing the whole family of the infected individual before assuming any treatment, for as long as one member stays infected, others will potentially get the disease. Dermatologists treat this infection by recommending a medicated lotion to destroy the itch mites. People are instructed to apply permethrin cream from the neck down and let it remain on the skin during the night before it is washed off. This cream application is regularly repeated in a week. Benzyl benzoate emulsion and Kwell ointment are effective but should be limitedly applied entirely to the skin.

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Alocepia Pictures

Jun 21 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Alopecia?

Alopecia is a hair loss condition usually affecting the scalp. The loss is likely to be prompt and frequently includes more on one side of the head than the other. Hair grows in cycles. Typically, around 100 hair strands reach the resting phase each day where they fall out. Medical hair loss is conclusive when more than 100 hair strands fall out every day.

Symptoms

Alopecia distresses both males and females. Usual initial indications of idiopathic alopecia are little hairless spaces usually oval in shape. The underlying skin is unscarred and looks normal. Hair loss in men begins as thinning of hair at the temples and the hair strands may thin out or fall out. Hair loss in women starts as hair thinning at the frontal and parietal areas.

Causes

The cause of Alopecia could be idiopathic, physiologic, hereditary or chemotherapeutic. Physiologic alopecia may be related with hormonal adjustments during childbirth, or due to nutritional factors, or toxin contact. If the patient underwent chemotherapy, the degree of alopecia depends on the dosage of the drug, half-life and the length of the treatment period. Hair loss starts 2 weeks after chemotherapy and regrows between 3 to 5 months after the therapy.

Treatment

Medications can be prescribed by the doctor to correct baldness. Minoxidil causes healthy hair regrowth. Bald males can use Finasteride with fine results.

Generally, people who are self-conscious choose the expensive and painful surgical methods as treatment option. Available today are hair follicle transplant to plant new hairs into the bald area and alopecia reduction to decrease the area of bald skin. Seven months after the operation, the quality of the new hair can be already checked.

Alternative to the above treatments, some individuals wear natural looking wig to cover the hair loss

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Kidney Stones Pictures

Jun 21 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Kidney stones?

Also known as renal calculi, kidney stones are formed by deposition of crystal aggregations from insoluble substances like nitrogenous wastes and calcium compounds in the kidney.

Naturally, these stones leave the body by passage in the urine. Small pieces of stones easily pass through the ureter and out through the urethra when one urinates without causing any symptoms. Larger ones which are about 2-5 mm in diameter may never leave the kidney; sometimes however, it enters the ureter and causes renal colic or an intermittent, severe pain and spasm until the stone reaches the bladder. The pain is caused by the peristaltic contractions as the ureter attempts to expel the obstruction. It is commonly felt in the flank and lower abdomen radiating to the groin lasting for about 20 minutes to 1 hour

The etiology of urinary stone formation is complicated. It encompasses a number of factors, including, low urine volume, hereditary factors, high calcium levels in the blood, diet high in oxalate, urinary tract infections, and excessively acidic urine.

An individual is advised to drink at least 3 liters of water every day to flush the stones into the bladder. Trap the stones when it passes by filtering urine with a piece of gauze or filter so that it can be used for stone analysis. OTC pain relievers taken in moderation are recommended. Doctors may prescribe antispasmodic drugs to relax the ureter muscle during passage of stones. They may also prescribe potassium citrate to decrease urine acidity.

With a procedure called extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy, larger stones can be crushed via condensed bursts of sound waves. Dietary modification is advised to prevent reappearance of stones. Avoid sodium, foods rich in oxalate, and animal protein. In extremely rare cases where patient does not respond well to treatment options, a surgical operation is required to take away the kidney.

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Gum Abscess Pictures

Jun 21 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Gum Abscess?

Typically, a gum or gingival abscess is attributable to an infection in the surface of the gingival tissue. The primary cause of this condition is direct microbial growth from an existing tooth cavity and into the gum tissues. If a food particle gets locked in between the gingiva and tooth, tissue disintegration could occur. The damage in the immediate structures will then direct to the creation of mini-pockets. Food particles will build up in the pockets to form plaque and tartar creating a favorable environment for the microorganisms to exist and multiply. Infection sets in leading to a localized collection of pus.

When pus formation arises in the gums, the individual will suffer unrelenting sore and painful sensations. The affected area will swell up and a white boil will appear on the gum. Opening the mouth may be difficult because of the swelling and gingival inflammation. The taste buds will be affected if pus drainage is continuous. If left without proper treatment, the infection may extend to other gum areas.

As an initial measure to ease the pain, use salt water or clove oil. Anti-inflammatory medications may also help. If an abscess breaks by itself, have warm water rinses to cleanse the mouth and promote pus drainage. Using mouthwash and saline gargles cannot treat the infection but will just lighten the pain. Pay a visit to a dentist at once to have it treated. Patients with dental abscess are usually given antibiotics at the judgment of the physician.

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Boils Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is a boil?

Also termed as a furuncle, a boil is a deep-seated infection of the hair follicle which is generally caused by Staphylococcus aureus. It is a confined dermatological infection that commonly begins as a painful, reddened, inflamed area. After a while, the mottled area becomes firm, rigid, and tender. The white or yellow point at the midpoint of the boil softens and becomes filled with pus. In groups, they are called as carbuncles. Individual may as well develop hyperthermia, swollen lymph nodes, and body weakness.

There are several causes of boil formation. It can be brought by an ingrown hair. The bacterial colonization starts in the hair follicles and produces a localized inflammation. In the case of acne, the reason is the plugged sweat glands becoming infected. The skin forms as a line of defense against materials and pathogens foreign to the body. Any break in the integrity of the skin can become an pustule should it get infected with bacteria. People who have diabetes, nutritional deficiencies, poor sanitation, chemical exposure and those who are immunosuppressed are greatly susceptible to skin infections.

Proper hygiene practices and the frequent use of antibacterial soaps help stop bacteria from accumulating on the skin surface. These measures trim down the odds for the hair follicles to get contaminated.

Opposite to the conventional idea, boils need not to be drained in order to heal; as a matter of fact, opening the infected area can initiate further infections. Never squeeze or lance the boil with needle without the supervision of a doctor because it may just worsen the condition. Heat application is the principal treatment for most boils. Heat application typically with hot soaks enhances blood circulation to the involved area and permits the body to better combat the infection by carrying antibodies and WBCs to the site of infection. Antibiotics are not needed in all situations. They may be recommended by the doctor if there is severe infection after determining the type of bacteria through culture and sensitivity.

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Sebaceous Cyst Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Sebaceous cyst?

Every so often labeled as an epidermal cyst, a sebaceous cyst is a sac below the skin which is filled with a fatty, cheesy-like, greasy substance.

Different factors predispose the person to develop sebaceous cyst. It could be a hereditary factor, high levels of testosterone, skin trauma or plugged sebaceous glands. Most often, it crops up from swollen hair follicles.

The major clinical manifestation is typically a minor, slow-growing, non-painful, freely movable nodule underneath the skin. Sebaceous cysts are most common to appear on the face, neck, chest and back. Yet, when infected, inflammation of the skin over the area occurs. The cyst may drain a cheesy, grayish-white and offensive smelling matter. These mobile bumps contain fibrous tissues, viscous, serosanguinous fluid, and a keratinous substance which gives off the characteristic foot odor smell.

It is best to ignore them because most often, sebaceous cysts disappear over time and are not dangerous. However these cysts may become inflamed and painful when attempted to squeeze. They may grow large enough and when this occurs, surgery may be compulsory for it to be excised. If they remain small, they can be treated with a steroid injection to reduce swelling. Another familiar and effective approach to help the cyst drain and heal is the placement of a warm compress directly over the area for about 15 minutes, two times a day for a duration of 10 days.

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Psoriasis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Psoriasis?

Psoriasis is a common T-cell-mediated autoimmune, persistent skin disorder, characterized by circumscribed patches of raised, thickened, red bumps covered with silvery-white, flaking scales. Naturally in the deepest layer of skin, there are new skin cells continuously being formed. From there, they ascend to the epidermal layer where dead surface cells are shed in a 28-day-process. In areas affected by psoriasis, however, the problem is new cells only need three to four days to reach the epidermal surface, leading to an increased epidermal cell turnover with marked thickening which causes the typical scaly plaques.

In almost all cases, the primary cause is unspecified. It is believed that activated T lymphocytes produce chemical messengers that stimulate abnormal growth of keratinocytes and dermal blood vessels. Other factors may be associated with heredity. Flare-ups may be elicited by infection, skin trauma and injury, stress, certain medications, corticosteroid withdrawal, alcohol and cold temperature and various environmental factors.

There is no known way to prevent psoriasis, and there is no cure either. The primary goal of treatment is to suppress the signs and symptoms of the disease. The treatment regimen depends on the severity of the condition as well as the patient’s age, history, compliance to therapy, and sex.

Exposure to sunlight improves many individuals with the condition. Maintaining the skin soft and well moisturized is effective. Application of heavy moisturizing creams can prevent skin dehydration especially when applied straight away after bathing. Never use irritating cosmetics and soaps. Do no scratching or skin rubbing or any aggressive action which can cause bleeding and irritation. Bath soaks with coal tar can eliminate and trim down the plaques. A physician-directed light therapy may be necessary.

The three fundamental modes of treatments for psoriasis are topical therapy, phototherapy and systemic therapy; all these therapies may well be used unaccompanied or in combination. Under topical therapy, the major remedies are corticosteroids, vitamin D-3 derivatives, coal tar and retinoids. In cases where psoriasis is extensive, as characterized by more itchy patches than can simply be counted, then UV-B light and PUVA are used. The third treatment mode is systemic therapy which includes drugs that are usually established after both topical treatment and light therapy have become unsuccessful.

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Impetigo Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Impetigo?

Impetigo is a common, superficial, extremely infectious bacterial infection of the skin generally caused by group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus, staphylococcus aureus or by multiple bacteria.

The mode of transmission is via direct contact with lesions and with nasal carriers. Dried streptococci suspended in the air are not transmittable to the intact skin. The period of incubation is 1 to 3 days. It is very contagious and infection may spread from one body area to other exposed areas of the body and may infect other people sharing with them their clothing, linen, towels, combs and other personal belongings soiled with exudates.

At first, the lesions appear as small, red pustules which quickly become isolated, thin-walled vesicles which will soon rupture leaving a denuded area that discharges a honey-like serous liquid. After it hardens on the skin surface, they become covered with stuck-on golden yellow crusts. Removing the crust will expose the smooth, red, moist surface on which new crust will form again.

There are two categories of impetigo namely bullous impetigo and non-bullous impetigo. Bullous impetigo involves larger fluid-containing vesicles that is clear at first and then becomes hazy. The most widespread type of impetigo is the non-bullous. In reverse to bullous impetigo, the blisters in non-bullous are tiny. These blisters will burst open in the end leaving a raw patch of red skin that suppurates fluid. Steadily, a honey-yellow coating coats the area.

Frequent hand washing and other good hygiene measures can facilitate prevention. Take baths regularly and clean the skin with mild soap and water. Prevent spreading the infection among members of the family by using a separate towel. Separate the infected individual’s personal belongings and wash the items in hot water. Other members who are not infected should pay special care to areas of the skin with impaired integrity and keep it clean and protected from getting infected. Persons who have impetigo are advised to stay indoors for a few days.

If the affected area is extensive and there is a concern about complications, then systemic antibiotic therapy is the usual treatment. Oral penicillin may be prescribed to patients with nonbullous impetigo. Penicillinase-resistant penicillins are recommended to patients who have bullous impetigo. If the patient has previous allergic reaction to penicillin, erythromycin is a useful substitute. If the disease is just limited to a small area, a topical antibiotic may be prescribed. An alternative to topical antibiotics is hydrogen peroxide.

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Shingles Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Shingles?

Herpes zoster, also known as shingles is a highly contagious disease attributable to the reactivation of the dormant human herpes virus type 3 virus situated in the dorsal nerve root ganglion of the spinal nerves. The virus can migrate along the path of a nerve to the skin surface causing a rash of painful blisters. This disorder affects only those who once have had chicken pox and commonly hits over age 50. In a client with a history of chickenpox, shingles can occur at some immunocompromised situations. Prognosis is good except when the virus extends to central nervous system.

It is still undefined how and why reactivation happens. It is assumed that the virus reactivates when, as a result of old age, illness, cancer, stress or immunosuppressant medications, the immune system turns out to be too vulnerable to keep the virus in a state of dormancy. After viral reactivation, the chicken pox virus travels down the sensory nerve into the skin to cause shingles.

In early stages, there is a tingling, itching, lightning bolt sensation followed by pain on one side of the body. One to three days after the pain starts, a rash with raised, red lumps and blisters erupts on the skin surface following a dermatomal outline or a ray-like distribution as blisters follow the pathway of individual nerves. They start to become pustules, and then scabs form by 10 days.

Separate the infected person from others because exudates from the lesions hold the virus. Maintain standard precautions. Use an air mattress on the bed and keep the atmosphere cool. Never scratch the skin where the rash is located to avoid the risk of secondary infections and scarring. To soothe the blisters, render cool water compress to suppurating blisters for 20 minutes many times a day. In the early stage of the disease, antiviral drugs may be combined with a strong corticosteroid to speed up healing and diminish the extent of pain. In the most critical situations, blocking agents are given via injection to stop pain signals from reaching the brain.

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Eczema Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Eczema?

Eczema is a general term used for common inflammatory dermatological conditions. The most constant features of eczema which are associated to significant amounts of histamine on the skin are pruritus and hyperirritability. Because of the alteration in the lipid content, sebaceous gland activity and sweating, too much dryness with consequential itching develops. This leads to crusting, flaking, cracking and bleeding of the skin. In reaction to skin rubbing, instant redness comes out on the skin. Scratching exposes a healing lesion which may increase the rash. Over time, burning cracks become visible.

The common classifications of eczema are atopic eczema, contact dermatitis, xerotic eczema and seborrheic dermatitis. Atopic eczema is an allergic disease with a hereditary element. Contact dermatitis is a cell-mediated skin sensitivity which results from a direct exosure with a chemical or allergen. A very common skin disorder among the older population is xerotic eczema where the skin becomes so dehydrated it turns into eczema. This type of eczema gets worse in dry winter conditions. Seborrheic dermatitis is a skin condition directly related to dandruff. There is dry and oily flaking in the scalp, face and eyebrows.

Eczema can be genetically inherited but still there is no exact cause but a defect of the skin weakens its role as a barrier. Some people have more than one gene defect leading to abnormalities in proteins which are known to be essential in maintaining skin integrity. Some forms of eczema can be triggered by environmental allergens direct contact with irritants, temperature, humidity, and psychological stress.

The course of action for the treatment of eczema includes decreasing irritation and scratching, lubricating the skin and preventing secondary infections. Individuals should stay away from allergenic substances such as harsh soaps and detergents. Scratching the affected area must be avoided since it will just worsen the condition ang may spread the irritation. Keep the fingernails short and clean. To prevent it from being scratched, it is effective to cover the area with clothing or sterile bandage. If exposed to allergenic substances, immediate washing of the exposed area with soap ang running water can remove the irritating chemical. To soothe the skin, intermittently apply wet compresses for short periods. OTC corticosteroid creams and oral antihistamines can help to relieve the intense itching. If secondary bacterial infection develops, antibiotics may well be needed.

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Seborrheic Keratosis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Seborrheic Keratosis?

Known also as Seborrheic verruca and senile wart, Seborrheic Keratosis is a noncancerous growth of idiopathic origin and is the most common benign tumor in older population.

The wart may just be single or may come in clusters of dozens and its size ranges from being tiny to larger than 1 inch in diameter. Usually, they come out as white to light tan and darken to brown or black as time goes by. At first, they are flat but as they grow thicker over time, they rise above the skin surface giving rise to a dome-shaped appearance. The characteristic feature of this skin condition is the waxy, stuck-on appearance, but their texture may become dry, rough and bumpy. When they start appearing on the face, they may become unsightly. This is asymptomatic. However, they can tingle, swell and hemorrhage easily.

The primary cause of Seborrheic Keratosis is yet undecided. Commonly affected are the sun-exposed areas such as the back, arms, face and neck, so perhaps, prolonged exposure to ultraviolet rays may play a role. The second factor is genetics. Some families have innate predisposition to have these multiple lesions.

After proper diagnosis, no treatment is necessary except in cases where it becomes irritated or unattractive. Remember also that there is no way to prevent new dark spots from forming. Picking at the lesion will just cause a small risk of a localized infection. If the tumor becomes terribly itchy or is irritated by clothing, a mild topical steroid cream can be used. Also, it can be removed by cryosurgery or freezing. If the lesion is small, it can be treated with light electrocautery while larger lesions can be removed by electrodessication and curettage, shave biopsy, or cryotherapy with liquid nitrogen. Except in patients with dark complexion, when properly performed, the removal of seborrheic keratoses will not cause much noticeable scarring.

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Scalp Psoriasis Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What is Scalp Psoriasis?

A subtype of psoriasis noticeable on the hair protected area of the head is scalp psoriasis. The extent can be mild or serious depending on the scaliness and inflammation and could be isolated or generalized. It can affect a certain area, and worse, the whole scalp. The most commonly affected parts are the areas behind the ears and the occipital area.

The usual presenting clinical manifestations are obvious, thick, crusted, silvery sheets of dead skin cells called plaques with well-defined borders, scalp discomfort caused by the red patches, bleeding in severe cases and a lot of scratching. It worsens when the area is constantly scratched. Even supposing it is sufficiently masked by the hair, like in dandruff; it causes shedding of the skin and can really be socially embarrassing. Patients, who have problems with the immune system, trauma, stress and hormonal changes, are much more susceptible.

The principal goal of treatment is loosening and removing the scales while providing liberal moisture as possible. The management for the itchy and flaky scalp depends upon the seriousness of the scalp psoriasis and the degree of involvement. Expose the body to sunlight as Vitamin D is activated and helps enhance skin condition. Coal tar shampoos are effective too. Massaging the scalp with aloe vera and lavender oil works wonders. Choose a shampoo with jojoba oil on it as this help moisturize the dry scalp. In mild scalp psoriasis, there is only superficial scaling. To treat this, the primary action is the use of ketoconazole shampoo followed by betamethasone valerate scalp solution. Bear in mind to apply Alcohol-based topical steroids intermittently because overuse leads to more extensive scalp psoriasis. If inflammation is negative, steroidal application can be substituted with calcipotriol lotion. In severe scalp psoriasis with thick adherent peeling plaques, the first measure is to remove the scales. If these scales are not eliminated, the antipsoriatic medication will not effectively act on the skin.

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Hives Pictures

Jun 20 2011 Published by admin under Uncategorized

What are Hives?

Hives are common skin disorders characterized by edematous plaques with severe itching. Classically, it appears as pallid red, raised, itchy bumps. Each hive remains for a few minutes to several hours before disappearing. For hours or days, clusters of these lesions may come, go, and return episodically. It can be acute when it persists less than six weeks or chronic when the sequence continues longer than six weeks. Acute urticaria accounts for the majority of the cases. Chronic urticaria is idiopathic in nature, rarely caused by an allergic reaction.

In urticaria, whether the activator is allergic or non-allergic, a complex release of inflammatory mediators is involved. One of the chemicals released from the cutaneous mast cells during the process is histamine, which causes escape of fluid from the superficial blood vessels.

Urticaria begins as red circular rashes and soon become pale and edematous which comes with an intense itching and burning sensation. Characteristically, hives rapidly change in size, moving anywhere from one are to another, disappearing and reappearing in matters of hours.

In the environment, numerous substances can cause hives including: medications, food, and physical agents which are aquagenic, stress-related, cholinergic, dermatographic, adrenergic, parasitic or temperamental.

Early identification and avoidance of the allergic triggers are the best ways to prevent another urticaria attack. If exposed to a trigger, have a preventive dose of antihistamine to inhibit hives from developing. Diphenhydramine is considered most effective non-sedating antihistamine. If the urticaria is severe, oral corticosteroids are given for short time only. Starch and colloid-type baths are used as comfort measures. In patients who experience angioedema of the respiratory tract, the doctor may counsel to bring a prescription of epinephrine.

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